Government of Karnataka English - Karnataka … textbooks/class9/9th standard/9th...Government of Karnataka English Second Language Textbook (Revised) ... - [PDF Document] (2024)


Government of Karnataka

EnglishSecond Language


9Ninth Standard

Karnataka Textbook Society (R.)100 Feet Ring Road

Banashankari 3rd Stage, Bengaluru - 85


The Textbook Society, Karnataka has been engaged in producing new textbooks, according to the new syllabi ,which in turn are designed on NCF - 2005, since June 2010. Textbooks are prepared in 12 languages; seven of them serve as the media of instruction. From standard 1 to 4 there is the EVS and Mathematics and from 5th to 10th there are three core subjects namely Mathematics, Science and Social Science.

NCF - 2005 has a number of special features and they are :

• connectingknowledgetolifeactivities

• learningtoshiftfromrotemethods

• enrichingthecurriculumbeyondtextbooks

• learningexperiencesfortheconstructionofknowledge

• makingexaminationsflexibleandintegratingthemwithclassroom experiences

• caringconcernswithinthedemocraticpolicyofthecountry

• makingeducationrelevanttothepresentandfutureneeds.

• softeningthesubjectboundaries-integratingknowledgeand the joy of learning

• Makingthechildtheconstructorofknowledge

The new books are produced based on three fundamental approaches Namely.

Constructive Approach, Spiral Approach and Integrated Approach.

The learner is encouraged to think, engage in activities and master skills and competencies. The materials presented in these books are integrated with values. The new books are not examination oriented in their nature. On the other hand, they help the learner in the all round development of his/her personality,



thus helping him/her become a healthy member of a healthy society and a productive citizen of this great country India.

The most important objectives of teaching language are listening, speaking, reading, writing and reference work. These skills have been given a lot of importance in all the language textbooks. Along with the inculcation of these skills, fundamental grammar, opportunities for learners to appreciate beauty and imbibe universal life values have been integrated in language textbooks. When learners master these competencies, they would stop studying textbooks for the sake of passing examinations. In order to help the learners master these competencies, a number of paired and group activities, assignments and project work have been included in the textbooks. It is expected that these activities would help the learner master communicative skills. Ultimately, it is expected that students master the art of learning to learn and to make use of these competencies in real life.

The Textbook Society expresses grateful thanks to the chairpersons, writers, scrutinizers, artists, staff of DIETs and CTEs and the members of the Editorial Board and printers in helping the Text Book Society in producing these textbooks. A few works of some writers and poets have been included in these textbooks. The textbook society is extremely grateful to them for giving their consent for the inclusion of these pieces in the textbooks.

Prof. G. S. Mudambadithaya Nagendra Kumar Co-ordinator Managing Director Curriculum Revision and Karnataka Textbook Society® Textbook Preparation Bengaluru, Karnataka Karnataka Textbook Society® Bengaluru, Karnataka


CHAIRPERSON’S NOTEThis new English Reader( II Language) introduced in the academic year

2013-14 has been conceived and designed on the principles and guidelines spelt outinNCF2005andthespecificationsspeltoutinthesyllabusinEnglish.

The most important objectives of this course are to enable learners to use English as an effective means of communication, academic improvement, appreciation of literature of the simplest form, and acquisition of socio- cultural and other strategic competencies.

This Reader is designed and prepared on the basic principles of second language learning namely,

• alanguageislearntthroughuse–listening,speaking,silentreadingwithcomprehension, reading aloud with expression, writing with accuracy and using the language for study purposes are important in learning a language.

• communicatingeffectivelyandsuccessfully• learningthroughinteraction• carryingoutteachingandevaluation(CCE)simultaneously• self-learning(learningtolearn/do/be/liveandletotherslive)The Reader (main course book) has prose lessons, poems and supplementary

reading passages. The detailed text has eight units. Each unit has a prose lesson and a poem and they are thematically related. Values are integrated in the prose lessons and poems.

The Reader is prepared to help learners to master various competencies specifiedinthesyllabusthroughmeaningfultasksdoneinpairsandgroups.Each unit comprises the following aspects :

• Warmupactivity• Lessonproper• Glossary• Comprehensionexercises• Vocabularyexercises• ListenandSpeak• SpokenEnglish• Grammarexercisesand• WritingThe Reader has a Workbook for learners. It has a variety of exercises for

children to work individually, in pairs and in groups.The Committee is grateful to all those who have contributed to making

this venture a success. The committee will be failing in its duty if it does not place on record the valuable suggestions and guidance offered by Prof. G.S.Mudambadithaya, the Chief Coordinator of Curriculum Revision and Textbook PreparationCommittee. It also thanks the TextbookOfficer, TheManaging Director and the staff and the scrutinizers for their valuable help and suggestions.

We wish all the stakeholders of the package a rewarding experience.



Chairperson :Dr. T. N. Raju, Professor, BES College of Education, 4th Block, Jayanagar, Bengaluru.

Members :G. N. Deshapande, Rtd, Headmaster, Banni Laxmi, Behind Manipal Hospital, Gopalpura Galli, VijayapuraNirmala, Head Mistress, Government High School, Kadusonnappanahalli, Bengaluru North.H D Revati, Asst Teacher, Vikas School, Ramamurthynagar, ITI Colony, Bengaluru - 16,Priscilla Shantha Dawson, St Ann’s High School, Rajajinagar, 6th Block, Bengaluru - 10.Raghavendra K. B, Jnanavahini High School, Kalidasa Road, Koppa , Chikkamagaluru Dist.S. Malini, Head Misstress, Government High School, Araleri - 563130, Malur Taluka, Kolar Dist.Ravinarayan Chakrakodi, Lecturer, RIESI, Jnanabharati, Bengaluru-56.EkanathC.L.,BRP(Secondary),BRC,BEO’sOffice,Chitradurga.Prakash R H, Assistant Teacher, Govt Junior College for Boys, Sindhanur Taluk, Raichur District.

Artist :Ramappa, Drawing Teacher, Govt High School, Pottery Town, Shivajinagar, Bengaluru - 46.

Scrutinizer :Narendranath G, Rtd Principal, No.10/503, Out House, Ashwatha Katte, Road, VV Puram, Bengaluru-560 004.

Editorial Board Members :Dr. Rajgopal, Professor, Dean School of English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad.Prof. N.S.Raghunath, Department of English, Karnataka University, Dharwad-560003.Dr. Rajendra Chenni, Professor, Department of English, Shankaraghatta. Kuvempu University, Shivamogga.Dr. Geetha Nagaraj, 29th Cross, Yadiyur, Jayanagar, Bengaluru.

Chief Co-ordinator :Prof. G.S. Mudambadithaya, Curriculum Revision and Textbook Preparation, Textbook Society, Bengaluru.

Chief Advisors : Sri Nagedra kumar, Managing Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.Smt Nagamani. c, Deputy Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.Programme Co-ordinatorSmt. Sowmya N.S, Asst. Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.Reviewer : P.N. Srinath, E & T professional, Mysuru.

Textbook Committee


About the Revision of Textbooks

Honourable Chief Minister Sri Siddaramaiah who is also the Finance Minister of Karnataka, in his response to the public opinion about the new textbooks from standard I to X, announced, in his 2014-15 budget speech of constituting an expert-committee, to look into the matter. He also spoke of the basic expectations there in, which the textbook experts should follow: “The textbooks should aim at inculcating social equality, moral values, development of personality, scientifictemper,criticalacumen,secularismandthesenseof national commitment”, he said.

Later, for the revision of the textbooks from class I to X, the Department of Education constituted twenty seven committees and passed an order on 24-11-2014. The committees so constituted were subject and class-wise and were in accordance with the standards prescribed. Teachers who are experts in matters of subjects and syllabi were in the committees.

There were already many complaints and analyses about the textbooks. So, a freehand was given in the order dated 24-11-2014 to the responsible committees to examine and review text and even to prepare new text and revise if necessary. Eventually, a new order was passed on 19-9-2015 which also gave freedom even to re-write the textbooks if necessary. In the same order, it was said that the completely revised textbooks could be put to force from 2017-18 instead of 2016-17.


Many self inspired individuals and institutions, listing out the wrong information and mistakes there in the text, had sent them to the Education Minister andtotheTextbookSociety.Theywererectified.Beforerectification we had exchanged ideas by arrangingdebates. Discussions had taken place with Primary and Secondary Education Teachers’ Associations. Questionnaires were administered among teachers to pool up opinions. Separate meetings were held with teachers, subject inspectors and DIET Principals. Analytical opinions had been collected. To the subject experts of science, social science, mathematics and languages, textbooks were sent in advance and later meetings were held for discussions. Women associations and science related organisations were also invited for discussions. Thus, on the basis of inputs received from various sources, the textbooks have been revised where ever necessary.

Another important aspect has to be shared here. We constituted three expert committees. They were constituted to make suggestions after making a comparative study of the texts of science, mathematics and social science subjects of central schools (NCERT), along with state textbooks. Thus, the state text books have been enriched based on the comparative analysis and suggestions made by the experts. The state textbooks have been guarded not to go lower in standards than the textbooks of central schools. Besides, these textbooks have been examined along side with the textbooks of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra states.


Anotherclarificationhastobegivenhere.Whateverwe have done in the committees is only revision, it is not the total preparation of the textbooks. Therefore, the structure of the already prepared textbooks have in no way been affected or distorted. They have only been revised in the background of gender equality, regional representation, national integrity, equality and social harmony. While doing so, the curriculum frames of both central and state have not been transgressed. Besides, the aspirations of the constitution are incorporated carefully. Further, the reviews of the committees were once given to higher expert committees for examination and their opinions have been inculcated into the textbooks.

Finally, we express our grateful thanks to those who strived in all those 27 committees with complete dedication and also to those who served in higher committees. At thesametime,wethankallthesupervisingofficersofthe Textbook Society, who sincerely worked hard in forming the committees and managed to see the task reach its logical completion. We thank all the members of the staff who co-operated in this venture. Our thanks are also to the subject experts and to the associations who gave valuable suggestions.

Narasimhaiah Managing Director

Karnataka Textbook Society (R) Bengaluru.

Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa Chairman-in-Chief

State Textbook Revision CommitteesKarnataka Textbook Society (R)




Chairman-in-Chief: Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa, State Textbook Revision Committees, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru. Chairperson:Dr. N. Shantha Naik, Dean and Chairman, Department of English, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ballari. Members:Smt. Vijaya.S , Asst. Teacher, Govt. High School, Sonnashettihalliy, Chintamani, Chikkaballapur.Dist. Smt. A. Anantha Padma Priya, Asst. Teacher, Govt. Girl’s High school, Hosakote town, Bengaluru Rural Dist.

Sri. Vishwanatha. N.Y. Asst. Teacher Govt. High school, Mandikal, Chikkaballapur, Dist.

Sri.Manukumar.H.M.EducationCo-ordinatorB.E.O.Office,Shivajinagar, Bengaluru- North-3.

Dr. Komala D.R. Lecturer, Govt.P.U. College, Hadli Circle, Malavalli (Tq), Mandya Dist. Smt. Dilshad Begum. Lecturer, Govt. Polytechnic College, Ballari. Artist:Sri. Venkatesh, Drawing teacher, Govt. High School, Urumarakesalagere, Mandya South, Mandya Dist.

High Power Review Committee Members:Dr. G.Rajagopal, Professor (Retd) #716, Prashanathnagar, Bogadi, 2nd Stage- South, Mysuru. Sri. M.G.Hegde, Professor, Department of English, Dr.A.V. Baliga Arts and Science College, Kumta, Uttara Kannada Dist. Sri. Kannan, Professor, Department of English , P.G Center, Karnataka State Women’s University, Vijayapura.Dr.Ramaprasad, Professor, Department of English , Kuvempu University, Gnanasahyadri, Shankarghatta, Shivamogga , Dist. Dr.Mallikarjun Patil, Professor, Department of English, Karnataka University, Dharwad. Chief Advisors: Sri. Narasimhaiah, Managing Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru. Smt.C. Nagamani, Deputy Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru. Programme Co-ordinator: Smt. N.S. Sowmya, Assistant Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.



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Prose Poem Page No.

1. The Enchanted Pool Upagupta 1-30

2. The Three Questions Gratefulness (Memorization)


3. My Beginnings A Girl Called Golden 46-72

4. Whatever We Do The Wonderful Words (Memorization)


5. Justice Above Self Justice 90-104

6. The Noble Bishop Nobleness Enkindleth Nobleness


7. TheWillofSacrifice The Song of Freedom (Memorization)


8. To My Countrymen It Never Comes Again (Memorization)


Supplementary Reading

1. Aruna Asaf Ali 161-165

2. The Happy Cure 166-169

3. Ranji’s Wonderful Bat 170-175

4. Monday Morning 176-180


UNIT - 1

ProseBefore You Read :

When we talk about people, we discuss their qualities.The box given below has some words which describe people. Sit in small groups and classify them under ‘desirable’ and ‘not so desirable’ categories. You may consult a good dictionary or your teacher.

courage, amicability, gentleness, sympathy, kindness, helpfulness, enthusiasm, wisdom, affection, honesty, selfishness, cruelty, humility, faithfulness, endurance, perseverance, determination, negligence, callousness, carelessness, arrogance.

Desirable qualities Not so desirable qualities

Perhaps you have some idea about what the good and bad qualities are. Read the following story to know more about them from Yudhistira, the eldest of the Pandavas.

Read on

The Enchanted Pool

- C. Rajagopalachari

In the Mahabharatha, the Pandavas lost everything in the game of dice to the Kauravas and had to live in the forest for twelve


years. During this period they had to constantly move from place to place for safety and to meet their daily needs. One day in the twelfth year, the Pandava brothers wandered deep into the forest in pursuit of a deer……

1. The sun was hot overhead and the five brothers grew more and more weary and thirsty. Yudhistira sank down under a tree to rest and said to Nakula, “Brother, climb that tree and see whether there is any pool or river nearby.” Nakula climbed the tree, looked around and said, “At a little distance I see water plants and cranes. There must certainly be water there.”

2. Yudhistira sent him to fetch some water to drink. Nakula was glad when he got to the place and saw that there was a pool. He was very thirsty himself and so thought of quenching his thirst first before taking water in the quiver for his brothers; but no sooner than he dipped his hand in the transparent water, he heard a voice which said: “Stop! Nakula! Do not drink. This pool belongs to me. O son of Madri, answer my questions and then drink the water.” Nakula was surprised, but carried away by his intense thirst and heedless of the warning, he knelt down and began to drink the water. At once he began to feel terribly drowsy and he fell down; to all appearance dead.

3. When Nakula did not return for a long time, Yudhistira sent Sahadeva to see what the matter was. Sahadeva also ignored the warning. He drank the water and at once dropped down. When Sahadeva too failed to return, Yudhistira sent Arjuna to see whether the brothers had met with any danger . Arjuna went swiftly. He saw his brothers lying dead near the pool. Heart-bro-ken with grief, he wanted to avenge their deaths. However he too was overwhelmed by a monstrous thirst, which compelled him towards the fatal pool.


Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. Who did Yudhistira ask to look for water?2. Why do you think Nakula was happy when he got

to the place?3. Can you give a word for ‘transparent’ which means

almost the same?4. Why do you think Nakula did not obey the voice?5. What happened to Nakula when he drank the water?6. Why did Yudhistira send Sahadeva to see what the

matter was?7. Why did Sahadeva meet the same fate as Nakula?

Read on4. Again the warning voice was heard: “Answer my questions

before you drink the water. This pool is mine. If you disobey me, you’ll follow your brothers.” Arjuna became very angry. He cried,“Who are you? Come and stand up to me and I will kill you.” He shot sharp arrows in the direction of the voice. The invisible being laughed in scorn and said, “Your arrows can’t touch me.” Arjuna wanted to destroy this unseen foe, but first he had to quench his terrible thirst. So, he drank the water and also fell down dead.

5. After another anxious wait, Yudhistira turned to Bhima, “Dear brother, even Arjuna, the great hero hasn’t returned. Something terrible must have happened to our brothers. Please find them quickly.” Bhima hurried away without another word. Like Arjuna, Bhima also did not heed the warning and drank the water eagerly, glaring around in defiance. And instantly his great strength seemed to slip from him like a garment and he also fell dead among his brothers.

6. Puzzled and worried that his brothers had not returned, Yudhistira himself proceeded in the direction, his brothers


had taken. When he came near a pool he saw his four brothers lying on the ground, to all appearance dead. He was shocked. He got into the pool to quench his thirst. At once a voice without form warned him.“ Your brothers died because they did not heed my words. Do not follow them. Answer my questions first and then quench your thirst. This pool is mine.”

7. Yudhistira knew that these could be none other than the words of a Yaksha and guessed what had happened to his brothers. He saw a possible way of redeeming the situation. He said to the bodiless voice, “Please ask your questions”.The voice put questions rapidly one after another.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. What did Arjuna see when he got to the pool?2. Why do you think the voice did not allow Arjuna to drink

water?3. Why did the invisible being laugh at Arjuna?4. What was the warning of the Yaksha to Yudhistira?5. Do you observe any difference between Arjuna and

Yudhistira in their response to the invisible voice?6. Why do you think all the brothers fell unconscious when

they drank the water?


Read on8. It asked: “What makes Sun shine every day?”Yudhistira replied, “The power of God.” “What rescues man in danger?”Yudhistira quickly answered, “Courage.” “What is more nobly sustaining than the earth?”Yudhistira said, “The mother who brings up the children.” “What is faster than wind?”“Mind”, Yudhistira replied. “What befriends a traveller?”“Learning.” “Who is the friend of one who stays at home?”“The wife.” “Who accompanies a man in death?”“Dharma. That alone accompanies the soul in its solitary journey after death.” “Which is the biggest vessel?”“The earth, which contains all within itself, is the greatest vessel.” “What is happiness?”“Happiness is the result of good conduct.” “What is that, abandoning which, man becomes loved by all?”“Pride - for abandoning that man will be loved by all.” “What is the loss which brings joy and not sorrow?”“Anger - giving it up, we will no longer be subjected to sorrow.” “What is that, by giving up which, man becomes wealthy?”“Desire - getting rid of it, man becomes wealthy.” “What makes one a real Brahman? Is it birth, good conduct or learning? Answer decisively.”“Birth and learning do not make one a Brahman. Good conduct alone does. However learned a person may be, he will not be a Brahman, if he is a slave to bad habits.


“What is the greatest wonder in the world?” “Every day men see creatures depart to Yama’s abode and yet, those who remain, seek to live forever. This verily is the greatest wonder.”

9. Thus, the Yaksha posed many questions and Yudhistira answered them all.

10. In the end the Yaksha asked, “O king, one of your dead brothers can now be revived. Whom do you want revived? He shall come back to life.”

11. Yudhistira thought for a moment and then replied, “May the cloud-complexioned, lotus-eyed, broad-chested and long-armed Nakula, lying like a fallen ebony tree, arise.”

12. The Yaksha was pleased at this and asked Yudhistira: “Why did you choose Nakula in preference to Bhima who has the strength of sixteen thousand elephants? I have heard that Bhima is most dear to you. And why not Arjuna, whose prowess in arms is your protection? Tell me why you chose Nakula rather than either of these two.”

13. Yudhistira replied: “ O Yaksha, Kunti and Madri were the two wives of my father. I, a son of Kunti, am surviving, and so, she is not completely bereaved. So, to be fair, I ask that Madri’s son Nakula, be revived.” The Yaksha was pleased with Yudhistira’s impartiality and granted that all his brothers would come back to life.

14. It was Yama, the lord of Death, who had taken the form of the deer and the Yaksha, so that he might see his son Yudhistira and test him. He embraced Yudhistira and blessed him.

15. Yama said: “Only a few days remain to complete the stipulated period of your exile in the forest. The thirteenth year will also pass by. None of your enemies will be able to discover you. You will successfully fulfil your undertaking,” and saying this, he disappeared.


Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. According to Yudhistira, mind is faster than the wind.

Do you agree with him?2. What is that, abandoning which , man becomes loved

by all?3. What is the answer of Yudhistira to the question, ‘Who

rescues man in danger?’ 4. Why do you think the Yaksha gave Yudhistira a

boon?5. Why did Yudhistira choose Nakula in preference to

Bhima?6. If you were Yudhistira ,how many questions would you

be able to answer?7. Why did Yama take the form of a Yaksha?

Glossaryenchanted : placed under a magic spellcrane : a white bird with a long leg and long

neckquench : satisfy thirst by drinking somethingquiver : case for arrowsdrowsy : sleepyto all appearance dead : they seemed to be dead, but not

really soheed : to pay careful attent ion to

somebodie's advice or warning drop-down : fall downheart-broken : extremely sadavenge : to do something to hurt or punish

somebodyoverwhelm : strong emotional effect that one feels

and does not know how to react


anxious : worrieddefiance : open refusal to obey somebody or

somethingYaksha : semi-divine beingredeem : to make a bad situation betternobly sustaining : gently supporting verily : reallyrevive : to bring backbereave : depriveprowess : great skill at doing somethingbereaved : a person is bereaved if a relative or

close friend has just passed away

C1. The sequence of events has been jumbled up. Rearrange them and complete the given chart in pairs.

The sun was hot overhead and the five brothers grew more and more thirsty.

When Nakula did not return for a long time, Yudhistira sent Sahadeva to see what the matter was.

Sahadeva also did not return for a long time.

Yudhistira sent Nakula to fetch water.

Yudhistira was anxious when Bhima and Arjuna did not return.

The Yaksha was pleased and granted life to all his brothers.

At last Yudhistira himself got to the place where all his brothers were lying dead.

Yudhistira obeyed the Yaksha and answered all his questions.


C2. Hope you have enjoyed reading the story. Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option.

1. Arjuna wanted to destroy the unseen foe, but first he had to ———————————

a. ask permission from his brother.

b. quench his terrible thirst.

c. find out where it was.

2. Yudhistira agreed to answer the questions of the Yaksha because ———————-

a. he was afraid of the Yaksha. b. he knew the Yaksha. c. he wanted to see a possible way of saving his

brothers. 3. According to Yudhistira, happiness is the ————— a. result of material comfort b. result of good conduct c. result of good friendship.


C3. Here are some direct quotations from the story. Identify the speaker and write what each quotation suggests about the speaker. You can use the adjectives given in the box and may also add your own.

Speaker Quotation Qualityhighlighted

1 “Please ask your questions.”

2 “Who are you? Come and stand up to me. I will kill you."

3 “May the cloud-complexioned lotus-eyed, broad-chested and long armed Nakula arise.”

4 “At a little distance I see water plants and cranes. There must certainly be water there.”

5 “Do not follow your brothers. Answer my questions first and then quench your thirst.”

commanding, arrogance, humility, selflessness, prediction

C4. Discuss in pairs and answer each question below in a short paragraph (30- 40 words).

1. “There must certainly be water there.” How do you think Nakula came to that conclusion?

2. “Arjuna wanted to destroy this unseen foe.” Why do you think he wanted to do so?

3. “Yudhistira himself proceeded in the direction his brothers had taken.” What made Yudhistira take that decision?

4. “Happiness is the result of good conduct.” Do you agree with this? Support your answer with an example.

5. “May the cloud-complexioned Nakula, arise.” Why did Yudhistira choose Nakula in preference to Bhima and Arjuna?


VocabularyStudy the wordsV1. From the text find the words or phrases that match

these definitions and write them down. The number of the paragraph where you will find the words/phrases has been given in brackets.

1. a small area of still water in a hollow place —————(1) 2. to be so excited, angry or interested etc. that you forget

everything else ———— (3) 3. a feeling that you are better than other people———(8) 4. leave a place or habitat for ever —————— (8)

5. alone or single ——————— (8)

V2. Read the dialogue between Yudhistira and Yaksha carefully, and match the items in ‘A’ with the items in ‘B’.

A Bearth, friend of a traveller, power behind the sun, faster than the wind, result of good conduct

learning, god, mother, mind, happiness

After matching, frame appropriate sentences. One example is done.

Mind is imagined to be faster than wind.12345

V3. Look at the underlined words in the given sentences, and see how prefixes are added. 1. He began to feel terribly drowsy and soon fell uncon-



2. The invisible being laughed in scorn. 3. The Yaksha was pleased with Yudhistira’s impartiality.

* We can form the opposites by adding prefixes to words. Now replace the underlined words with appropriate words beginning with ‘un’, ‘in’ or ‘im’.

1. Bindu was not happy because she could not get good marks.

2. It is not possible to sing like Bhimsen Joshi . 3. Anusha could not go to school because she was not

well. 4. It is not wise to study overnight during exams. 5. The officer dismissed the clerk because he was not

competent. 6. Man is mortal but great work of art is not mortal.

Listen and SpeakHere are some sentences from the text. Listen to them

being read aloud by your teacher. Notice the voice variation. Teacher’s voice rises and falls whenever there is a pause either at the end of the sentence or in the middle. Rise and fall of the voice in speaking is called intonation

1. When Nakula did not return for a long time,Yudhistira sent Sahadeva to see what the matter was.

2. The invisible being laughed in scorn and said,“Your arrows can’t touch me”.

3. What is that, by giving up which, man becomes wealthy?

4. What makes the sun shine every day?

5. May the cloud-complexioned, lotus eyed, broad chested, long armed Nakula, lying like a fallen ebony tree, arise.

6. It was Yama, the lord of death, who had taken the form of Yaksha.

(You’ll learn more about this in future)

→→ →

→ →



Speak well(Function: Seeking Agreement)Here is a conversation between Sindu and Bindu. Listen to your teacher and practise the conversation changing roles.Sindu : Bindu, there is a talent show on Sunday. Can we

participate in it?Bindu : Um… no thanks. I don’t want to....Sindu : Oh, come on, you sing well, don’t you ?Bindu : Perhaps you can sing, but I can’t. Sindu : OK. Can you dance, at least?Bindu : Of course, I can. Anyway, I’m in no mood to dance

right now.Sindu : It doesn’t matter. Shall we register our names with

the teacher?Bindu : Oh, that we shall.Task 1. Note how the speakers use contracted form like can’t, don’t. Make a list of contracted forms of words. Then use them in short oral conversations.Read and respondTask 1. Read the following newspaper clipping carefully and answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with those of your friends.

1. Who has issued these guidelines?

2. When d id these guidelines come into effect?

3. What is the full form of CAF?

4. How many connections can a customer hold in a single name?

5. Name some of the


original proofs of identity. (You may ask your teacher.)6. These guidelines are applicable to —————- a) old customers b) new customers c) teenagers.Task 2. Read the given story and answer the questions that follow:

Once Akbar and his minister Birbal were walking in the palace garden. The king saw a huge flock of crows flying around. He wondered who could ever count the number of crows in the city. He immediately ordered his men to count the crows. The king’s men went to all parts of the city to count the crows. They counted the crows on the rooftops. They counted the crows in the trees. They counted the crows near the riverbanks. But still they were not sure about the number of crows in the city.

All the men counted the crows. But no one was sure of their number. The king thought it was the right time to ask Birbal.King sent for Birbal and the matter was told. Birbal laughed and answered.Birbal : It is very simple. There are two hundred crows in the

city.King : But people told that there were two hundred and forty.Birbal : That’s right , some crows have come to visit the city.King : But I counted hundred and sixty five !!Birbal : You are correct your Majesty, some crows have gone

to visit their friends.Akbar : You are a very clever man !!!King Akbar gave Birbal a bag of gold for the answer. Work in pairs. Match the words in the boxes with their meanings given below.

flock clever

huge majesty



1. group of birds2. very big3. intelligent4. a title of respect used when speaking to a king/queen5. certain

Choose the correct answer.1. Akbar and Birbal were walking ——————————— (in the field, in the palace garden, on the riverbank)2. The king’s men gave —————————— (different answers, the same answer, the correct answer)3. Birbal’s answer was ———————————

(the correct answer, a clever answer, the wrong answer)

Practice WritingTask 1. Can you imagine the Pandava brothers sharing their experience after coming back to life? Write a conversation in which they talk about their experience to each other. You can pick out and use such lines from the story which will make the conversation natural and interesting. You can begin with something like this…

Yudhistira : I can’t tell you how happy I am! I could not imagine what happened to you.

Nakula : I don’t remember what happened when I drank the water.

Sahadeva : I too experienced the same.

Arjuna : —————————————————————-

Bhima : ——————————————————————-

Yudhistira : ——————————————————————


Task 2. Here is Vaishak talking about something very strange that happened when he was on his way to school one morning.

It was Monday morning and as usual I got up late. As a result I missed the school bus and so I decided to cycle to school. I started off. I had barely gone five metres when I went over a large piece of stone.

Suddenly I heard a voice saying, ‘Hey, watch out, Vaisu!’

I was so startled I stopped. I looked around but there was no one near me. Only then I realized it was my cycle that had just spoken ………………

You can use the following expressions :

(could not believe, would like to, surprising, take care.)

Language in useTask 1. Read this passage from the text and observe the underlined words.

Yudhistira sent Nakula to fetch some water to drink. Nakula was glad when he got to the place and saw there was a pool. He was very thirsty himself and so thought of quenching his thirst first before taking water in the quiver for his brothers.

Now complete the sentences with the right form of the verbs given in brackets.

1. The Pandavas ————— (chase) the animal but it was a magic deer which ——— (speed) in great leaps and bounds decoying the Pandavas far into the forest and then ——— (disappear).The Sun was hot overhead and the brothers ——— (grow) more and more thirsty.

2. According to the condition of the game, the Pandavas —— (spend) twelve years in the forest and the thirteenth year in disguise. When they ——— (return) and ———— (demand) Duryodana their kingdom, he —— (refuse) to return it. War ——


(follow) as a consequence. The Pandavas ——— (defeat) the Kauravas and —— (regain) their kingdom.

3. The Pandavas —— (rule) the kingdom for 36 years. Afterwards, they —— (transfer) the crown to their grandson Pariksh*tha.

Group work

Look at these two sentences:

1. Arjuna cared for the words of the Yaksha.

2. Arjuna did not care for the words of the Yaksha.

The first one is in the positive form, and the second one is in the negative form.

Task 2. Choose some sentences in the positive form and change them into negative form. (You may take the sentences from the text)

1. _______________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________

3. _______________________________________________

4. _______________________________________________

You come across many sentences which can be written in the question form like.

1. Pandavas spent twelve years in the forest.

2. Yudhistira could answer all the questions.

Did Pandavas spend twelve years in the forest ?

Could Yudhistira answer all the questions ?


Task 3. Now, choose some sentences in the positive form and rewrite them in the question form. (You may take the sentences from the text)

1. _______________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________

3. _______________________________________________

4. _______________________________________________

Note: The past tense form is used to denote an action in the

past, generally.

In negative sentences, use did not and the present form of the verb.

Begin a sentence with did and use verb in the present form to ask a question.

In the case of auxiliary verbs - both primary and modals-corresponding past form of the verb is used.

Task 4. Read these questions from the text.

What is faster than the wind?

Which is the biggest vessel ?

Why did you choose Nakula in preference to Bhima?

You cannot answer these questions with only a Yes or No.You need to give some information in your response. These questions are known as Wh- questions since they usually begin with a wh-word except how.

The wh - words are : who, whose, whom, what, when, where, why, which, how.


Now study the table below carefully:

Question word

Ask about Example

What a thing What is the loss which brings joy not sorrow?

When a time When is our next examination?Where a place Where do you come from?Why a reason Why do you come to school late

every day?Which a choice Which is the biggest animal on

land?Who a person Who is your favourite actor?How a manner How do you come to school every


Task 5

Work in pairs. Take turns to ask questions to your partner using the incomplete questions in the quiz below. You will need to use appropriate ‘wh-’ words. Answer your partner’s questions.

QUIZa. —————— did India become independent?

b. —————— would you spend your holidays?

c. ——— was the world’s first woman Prime Minister?

d. ——————— is the biggest flower in the world?

e. ——— ——— years does a millennium have?

f. ———— can you find lions in India?

g. ———— colours are there in the rainbow?

h. ———— does oil float on water?

i. ———— do you think a mermaid can be found?

j. ——— do you stay in holidays?


Task 6. India’s first woman commercial pilot Durba Banerjee, was interviewed by some students. Her answers to the questions are given below. Can you guess the questions that she was asked.

1. Why did you want to become a pilot?In my time, girls were just becoming teachers and doctors. I thought I should be completely different. 2.I first started flying in 1951.3.My salary was only Rs. 356 when I first joined as pilot.4.The male pilots accepted me almost immediately.5.I went to the US as the Indian representative at the World Lady Pilot’s Association gathering.6.I never married as I thought my career would not allow me to devote sufficient time to family life.7.Many girls think that a pilot’s life is glamorous but they have to be willing to sacrifice a lot. It is a hard life with no fixed hours.8.I stopped flying in 1989 when I retired from IA.

Task 7. Look at these sentences.He began to feel terribly drowsy.

Yudhistira sent Sahadeva to see what the matter was.

Arjuna wanted to destroy the unseen foe.

In these sentences to feel to see and to destroy just name the action and they are not limited by number and person. It is called the verb infinitive or simply the ‘infinitive’.

The word to is generally used with the infinitive.


Now replace the underlined clauses with an infinitive construction.e.g., We were pleased when we heard the news. We were pleased to hear the news.1. The doctor told him that he should rest for a few days.2. I hope that I shall build a new house soon.3. The boy promised that he would not make the mistake once

again.4. The people were shocked when they saw the accident.5. Shreya was told that she must report for duty the next day.6. The teacher told the students that they should do their work


Task 8. Now complete these sentences using infinitives.1. I cannot decide where ___________________________________2. Bindu wants to know how _______________________________3. I do not know what _____________________________________4. Ranjan is learning how _________________________________5. Please tell me where ____________________________________

Make reference - Dictionary workLook at this sentence:Arjuna shot a sharp arrow in the direction of the voice.Here, sharp means ‘having a thin point or edge and being able to cut or make a hole.’Here are some other ways sharp can be used.

1. I have a sharp pain on my chest.2. There are many sharp curves on Sringeri-Koppa road.3. Please be here at seven o’clock sharp.4. The picture quality of the LED television set is sharp.5. Lemons have a sharp taste.


Sit in pairs and look up the dictionary and write down the meaning of sharp in each of these examples.Additional Reading Read the poem ‘The Epic War’. Share your response with your friends/mates.The Epic War - A.K. Ramanujan

When our lord managedthat spectacular Bharata War,what noise!

Noise of well-fed wrestlersfalling in combat,the jitterof whole men,and the noises of the godsjostling in heavento watch the fun!

Project WorkWrite the whole story in the form of a play and enact it in the classroom with the help of your teacher. You may include the role of a narrator also. Suggested reading

1. Mahabharatha and Ramayana - C. Rajagopalachari.2. E p i c C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e M a h a b h a r a t h a -

Prof. G.S. Mudambadithaya.

About the authorChakravarthy Rajagopalachari, popularly known as “Rajaji” was a great patriot, astute politician, incisive thinker and also author of many books. His popular books are on Bhagavad Gita , the Upanishads ,Ramayana and Mahabharatha. In Mahabharatha he displays his inimitable flair for telling stories and applying their moral principles to modern times.


POETRYBefore You Read

Buddha and AngulimalaLook at the picture given here. What comes to your mind when you see this picture?





Write briefly your thoughts and feelings in these lines.



Introduction(This poem is about the story of a Buddhist monk Upagupta, a disciple of Lord Buddha and the dancing girl of Mathura, Vasava-datta. Vasavadatta was a famous and beautiful dancing girl. She was proud of her beauty, youth and her wealth. Upagupta was an ascetic, an epitome of kindness, wisdom and selflessness. One dark night, while walking,Vasavadatta stumbles over the body of Upagupta, who was sleeping on the dusty ground.)

Read the poem to know what happened next.Teacher reads the poem. Close your books and listen to your teacher recite the poem.


Upagupta- Rabindranatha Tagore

Upagupta the disciple of Buddha, lay asleep onthe dust by the city wall of Mathura.Lamps were all out, doors were all shut, andstars were all hidden by the murky sky of August. 4

Whose feet were those tinkling with anklets, touching his breast of a sudden?He woke up startled, and the light from a woman’slamp struck his forgiving eyes. 8

It was the dancing girl, starred with jewels,Wearing a pale blue mantle, drunk with the wineof her youth.She lowered her lamp and saw the young faceausterely beautiful. 12

“Forgive me, young ascetic,” said the woman,“graciously come to my house. The dusty earth is not fit bed for you.”The young ascetic answered,“Woman,go on your way; 16

When the time is ripe, I will come to you.”Suddenly the black night showed its teethin a flash of lightning.The storm growled from the corner of the sky, andThe woman trembled in fear of someunknown danger. 20


A year has not yet passed.It was evening of a day in April,in spring season.The branches of the wayside trees were full of blossomgay notes of the flute came floating in thewarm spring air from afar. 24

Upagupta passed through the city gates, and stood at the base of the rampart.Was that a woman lying at his feet in the shadow of the mango grove? 28

Struck with the black pestilence, her bodyspotted with sores of small-pox, She was hurriedly driven away from the townTo avoid her poisonous contagion.The ascetic sat by her side, took her headon his knees, 32

And moistened her lips with water, andsmeared her body with sandal balm“Who are you, merciful one?” asked the woman.“The time, at last, has come to visit you, andI am here,” replied the young ascetic. 36

Glossarygay : happy disciple : follower of a religious leadertinkling : making a pleasant metallic sound.startled : extremely surprisedforgiving : merciful, excusingstarred : shining like starsmantle : loose cloak (worn especially in the

past)drunk with the wine: proud of her youth and beautyof her youth


austerely beautiful : reflecting the beauty of the ascetic

graciously : kindly

growled : a long deep sound or series of sounds

full of blossoms : heavy with flowers

afar : far away

base : support

struck : affected

black pestilence : any infections disease that spreads quikly and killes a lot of people

contagion : the spreading of disease by contact

smeared : applied

rampart : a high wide wall of earth, built around a castle, town etc.

Understand the Poem

C1. Work in pairs. Pick out the words/phrases from the poem which tell you about the following. Write them in the space given. One is done for you.

dark gloomy sky The murky skyornamental chain wornaround the ankle of a ladya religious person who leadsa simple and strict lifeat an appropriate timeflashes of lightningroadsidefort like structuremade slightly wet


C2. The important signposts of the poem are given in the box. Fill in the flowchart in the order in which the in-cidents occur.* The dancing girl

invites him to her home.

* Upagupta asleep on the dusty ground of Mathura.

* The woman driv-en away from the town.

* He promises to visit her when the time is ripe.

* Upagupta keeps his promise.

C3. Some qualities of Upagupta are given. Quote the appropriate lines from the poem to justify them.One is done for you.Simplicity sleeping on the dusty earthMercifulForgivingYoung and attractiveBe true to his words

C4. Work in small groups. Complete the summary of the poem with suitable words given in the bubbles.

Upagupta a ———— of Buddha, goes from one place to another.


Once while he is sleeping in a small town called ——-———, a dancing girl wakes him up and ————————— him to her home.

Upagupta ——————, but tells her, “I will visit you when the time is —————————————”

A year later, Upagupta finds the dancing girl lying on the ground ————— the town, having sores all over the body . She is driven away from the ———.He gives her —— and applies —— on her body. The woman asks who he is. Upagupta replies, “Now the —— has come to visit you and I am here”.

outsideinvites balm

refusesMathura town time

ripedisciple water

Read and AppreciateR1. Read and discuss your responses with your partner.

Then write.

1. Why did Upagupta wake up startled?

2. “The dancing girl was rich.” Do you agree with this opinion? Justify your answer by quoting from the text.

3. Why do you think the ascetic did not accept the invitation of the dancing girl?

4. How is the spring season described in the poem?

5. “The time, at last, has come to visit you.” What do you understand by this?


6. Read the last stanza. Does the description suggest anything about the ascetic?

R2. Imagery is the use of language to evoke pictures in the minds of the readers or listeners. Sit in pairs, identify the images used in the poem and write them down.

e.g., 1. Upagupta sleeping on the dusty ground.

R3. In groups of four discuss what might have happened next in the story of the poem “Upagupta”. Share your answer with the rest of the class.

Do the project

Try to think of the incident critically. For instance, when the girl invited the ascetic he refused. Later, when the ascetic came on his own, and attended her, she could not recognize him.

This is a case what we term ‘irony’ in poetry. Think of irony in the books you have studied. Share your opinions and thoughts with your classmates.


Know about the authorRabindranath Tagore, the greatest of India’s modern poets, was born in an affluent Bengali family in 1861. Besides being a poet, he was a novelist, essayist and dramatist. Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his book “Gitanjali”.He was the founder of the internationally famous institution Vishwa Bharathi at Shantiniketan.

His poetry is profoundly and unmistakably Indian. He restates the wisdom of India in verse by mingling love, friendship and music.Recite and enjoyRead the following poem. Do you find any similarity between the poem “Upagupta” and this one? Discuss.

Words to Live by- Rebecca Barlow Jordan

It’s not how. much you accomplish in lifethat really counts,

but how much you give to others.It’s not how high you build your dreams

that makes a difference,but how high your faith can climb.It’s not how many goals you reach,

but how many lives you touch.It’s not who you know that matters,

but who you are inside.Believe in the impossible,hold tight to the incredible,and live each day to its fullest potential.

You can make a difference in your world.

` ` `


UNIT - 2

ProseBefore You Read Discuss the following points in groups and present your views to the class.

The best time to do something. The most important person in your life. The most important thing to do in your life.

* * *Read on

Three Questions- Count Leo Tolstoy

(A king has three questions and he is seeking answers to them. What are the questions? Does the king get what he wants? Read to find out.)

1. The thought came to a certain king that he would never fail if he knew three things.

1. What is the right time to begin something? 2. Who should a king listen to? 3. What is the most important thing for a king to do?

The king, therefore, sent messengers throughout his kingdom, promising a large sum to anyone who would answer these three questions.

Many wise men came to the king, but they all answered his questions differently.

2. In reply to the first question, some said the king must prepare a time table, and then follow it strictly. Others said that it was impossible to decide in advance the right time for doing something. The king should do whatever seemed


necessary at that time. Yet others said that the king needed a council of wise men who would help him act at the proper time.

But then others said that there were some things which could be urgent.

These things could not wait for the decision of the council. In order to decide the right time for doing something, it is necessary to look into the future. And only magicians could do that. The king, therefore, would have to go to magicians.

In their answers to the second question, some said that the people most necessary to the king were his councilors; others said priests. A few others chose doctors. And yet others said that his soldiers were the most necessary.

To the third question, some said attack. Others chose fight, and yet others religious worship.

As the answers to his questions were so different, the king was not satisfied. He decided to seek the advice of a certain hermit, who was widely known for his wisdom.

3. The king put on ordinary clothes and went to meet the hermit. Before he reached the hermit’s hut, the king left his horse with his bodyguard, and went alone.

As the king came near the hermit’s hut, he saw the hermit digging the ground in front of his hut. He greeted the king and continued digging.

The king went up to the hermit and said, “I have come to you, wise hermit, to ask you to answer three questions” and he repeated the questions.

The hermit listened to the king, but did not speak. “You are tired,” said the king. “Let me take the spade and work in your place.”

“Thanks,” said the hermit, giving the king his spade.

When the king had dug two beds, he stopped and repeated his questions. The hermit gave no answer.


Check Your ComprehensionShare your responses1. What thought came to the king?2. Write the three questions for which the king wanted to

have answers.3. Was the king satisfied with the answers? If ‘yes’,

why? If ‘no’, why?4. Who did the king decide to seek advice from?

Read on4. One hour passed, then another. The sun went down behind

the trees, and at last the king stuck the spade into the ground and said, “I came to you, wise man, for answer to my questions. If you can give no answer, tell me so and I will return home.”

5. “Here comes someone running,” said the hermit. The king turned round and saw a bearded man running towards them. His hands were pressed against his stomach, from which blood was flowing. When he reached the king, he fainted and fell to the ground. The king and the hermit removed the man’s clothing and found a large wound in his stomach. The king washed and covered it with his handkerchief, but the blood would not stop flowing. The king re-dressed the wound until at last the bleeding stopped.

6. The man closed his eyes and lay quiet. The king, tired by his walk and the work he had done, lay down on the floor and slept through the night. When he woke up, it was several minutes before he could remember where he was or who the strange bearded man lying on the bed was.


7. “Forgive me!” said the bearded man in a weak voice, when he saw that the king was awake.

“I do not know you and have nothing to forgive you for,” said the king.

“You do not know me, but I know you. I am that enemy of yours who swore revenge on you, because you put my brother to death and seized my property. I had made up my mind to kill you on your way home. But the day passed and you did not return. So I left my hiding-place, and I came upon your bodyguard, who recognized me and wounded me. I escaped from him but I should have died if you had not dressed my wounds. I wished to kill you, and you have saved my life. Now, if I live, I will serve you as your most faithful servant.”

Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. How did the king treat the wounded person?2. Why did the bearded man swear revenge on the

king?3. Who had wounded the man and why?4. Why did the man say that he would serve the king as

his most faithful servant?

Read on 8. The king was very happy to have made peace with his enemy

so easily, and to have won him over as a friend. He not only forgave him but also promised to give back the man his property.

Leaving the wounded man, the king went out of the hut and looked round for the hermit. The king went up to the hermit and said, “For the last time I beg you to answer my questions, wise man.”

“You have already been answered!” said the hermit.

“How have I been answered? What do you mean?”


9. “Do you not see?” replied the hermit. “If you had not pitied my weakness yesterday and had not dug these beds for me, you would have gone away. Then that man would have attacked you. So the most important time was when you were digging the beds. And I was the most important man, and to do me good was your most important business. Later, when the man ran to us, the most important time was when you were caring for him, because if you had not dressed his wounds, he would have died without having made peace with you. So he was the most important man, and what you did for him was your most important business.

10. “Remember then, there is only one time that is important and that time is ‘Now’. It is the most important time because it is the only time we have any power to act.

“The most necessary person is the person you are with at a particular moment. The most important business is to do that person good, because we are sent into this world for that purpose alone.”

Check Your Comprehension

Share your responses1. What did the king promise the man?2. The hermit said that the king had been answered. If

you agree, what was the answer to the first question?3. Why did the hermit say that he was the most important

man?4. According to the hermit,‘now’ is the most important time.

Why?5. What according to the hermit, was the most important



Glossarymessenger : a person carrying a messagecouncil : group of people chosen to advice hermit : a person who lives alone and leads a simple

lifewoods : a small forestaffairs : things/ matters/ businessbeds : small patches of ground for plants spade : tool for diggingfainted : lost consciousnessseized : took by forcefaithful : loyal and truefatally : seriously


Study the wordsV1. Each of the following sentences has two blanks. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the words given in brackets.One is done for you.e.g., Shankar has _______to help me. Do you think he will remember his_____? (promise)Shankar has promised to help me. Do you think he will remember his promise?

1. The____ said that only fresh evidence would make him change his_______. (judge)

2. I didn’t notice any serious_______ of opinion among the debaters, although they_____ from one another over small points. (differ)

3. It’s a fairly simple question to______, but will he accept my______ as final? (answer)


4. Hermits are__________ men. How they acquire their __________ no one can tell. (wise)

5. It isn’t_________ that_________ should always be the mother of invention. (necessary)

6. The committee has_______ to make Jagadish captain of the team. The________ is likely to please everyone. (decide)

7. Asking for________ is as noble as willingness to_______. (forgive)

V2. Fill in the blanks using the phrases given in brackets. Look up a dictionary if necessary. (Use them in their correct forms)

(pour in, tired of, be weary of, known for, come round, make peace, care for, look after)

The old father ______ his mischievous son. The son was ______ his bad deeds everywhere. He was so _______ his son’s misdeeds that often there used to be bitter quarrels between them. The old man decided not to _____him anymore.

One day the son was knocked down by a speeding vehicle. His condition was so serious that the father decided to __________ with the son. He ____ all he had on the treatment of his son. He ______ him in such way that the son _____very soon.

Language in UseL1. Look at the following sentences that appear in the story:

1. I was seen by your men.

2. You have been answered.

The sentences above are in passive voice form. The passive form is employed when the ‘work done’ is to be given more importance than the ‘person who has done the work’.

The sentences in passive voice form can be changed into the active voice form effecting some changes. Here are some examples.


Changing simple statements from active voice to passive voice

My mother answered all the questions correctly. (Active)

All the questions were answered correctly by my mother.


All the questions were answered by my mother correctly. (Passive)

Changing interrogative sentences from active voice to passive voice

Who built the Taj Mahal? (Active)

Who was the Taj Mahal built by?


By whom was the Taj Mahal built? (Passive)

Changing imperative sentences from active voice to passive voice

Kick all of them out. (Active)

Let all of them be kicked out. (Passive)

It should be remembered that a passive form has a specific area of use. Attempt should not be made to change every sentence in the Active form into the Passive form. The changes should always be sensible.

Task 1. Read the following news item that appeared in a newspaper.

Some rogues engaged in trafficking of children, kidnapped a smart school-going boy. A few pedestrians saw the incident. They requested some youth standing nearby to save the boy. The youth who ran after the rogues saved the boy. The onlookers appreciated the bravery of the youth.


Re-write the above paragraph starting as under.A smart school-going boy was kidnapped by some rogues engaged in…………….

Task 2. Complete the paragraph using the passive forms of the verbs given in brackets.

The World Environment Day is …… (observe) on June 5th every year. Millions of saplings are……. (plant) by responsible citizens, world over. In schools and colleges, students are….. (give) the task of picking all non-bio-degradable materials like plastic. They are…… (tell) how to keep the environment free of pollution.

Task 3. Collect a few newspaper headings and find out whether they are in the active voice or the passive voice. Paste them in a scrap book.

Here is an example for you.

“Three terrorists were shot dead.”

L2. Read the following sentences that appear in the lesson:

1. Many wise men came to the king. They all answered his questions differently.

2. Some said the king must prepare a timetable. He should follow it strictly.

Note that each of the statements given above contains two simple sentences. They have a ‘subject’ and a ‘finite verb.’

The two simple sentences in statements (1) and (2) can be combined as under:

1. Many wise men came to the king, but they all answered his questions differently.

2. Some said the king must prepare a timetable, and he should follow it strictly.


Sentences thus combined using coordinating conjunctions such as ‘but’ and ‘and’ are Compound sentences.

“A compound sentence is a sentence formed from two or more simple sentences.”

Note:1. The two clauses forming the compound sentence must

be related in meaning. It would not be logical to join two sentences with unrelated meanings.

2. A coordinating conjunction is one of these seven joining words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so. You can remember the coordinating conjunctions with the word 'fan boys', formed from the first letters of these seven conjunctions.

Here are some more examples of compound sentences:1. The two stopped to eat, for the work had made them

hungry.2. The afternoon had been long, and hours had gone by

since lunch.3. There was no house nearby, nor did they have any

food with them.4. They wanted to pick blueberries as a snack, but a bear

growled at them from the berry patch.5. Should they leave now, or should they wait awhile? 6. The job was not done, yet they needed to rest and eat.7. They were starving, and it was getting dark, so they

went home.

Speak well (offering help) Imagine you are Abdul, a resident of the historical Vijayapura city and you meet James, a foreign tourist infront of the Golgumbaz. You have the following conversation. Work in pairs playing the role of Abdul and James.


Foreigner - Good morning. I’m James. Could I know your name please?

Resident - Very good morning. I’m Abdul. Where are you from, sir?

James - I’m from Germany. Could you mind giving me some information about this monument ?

Abdul - Not at all. It’s my pleasure. This monument is Golgumbaz. It is the second biggest dome in the world.

James - Oh, wonderful! Who built this great monument?Abdul - Mohammed Adilshah built it.James - What makes this monument interesting?Abdul - Golgumbaz has a ‘whispering gallery.’ Every

sound uttered in the gallery is echoed more than seven times.

James - Is that so? It’s really interesting. Well, how many people visit this structure every year?

Abdul - Thousands. Eager tourists from every nook and corner of the world visit it every year.

James - But Vijayapura is very hot in April. Which is the ideal time to visit this historical city?

Abdul - November, December and January are the ideal months to visit Vijayapura.

James - Thank you very much Mr. Abdul for all the information.

Abdul - You’re welcome Mr. James.

Practise writing Discuss in groups and write a story using the clues given.

A small lonely railway station of a remote village … bad winter night…. dogs howling.. no lights… A passenger waiting for the train…. train arrives…. Gets into the compartment…


only one traveller is there…. he asks the new incumbent if he believed in ghosts… this man says ’no’… the other traveller disappears.

Present the story to the class. Try to narrate it using voice modulation, facial expressions etc.

Self-assessmentRead the statements and put a tick mark in the appropriate box.

Sl No.

Statement Yes No To some extent

1. I discussed the story in my group.

2. I was able to write an interesting story.

3. I gave a title to my story.

4. I can narrate the story using voice modulation, body language, facial expressions, etc.

Suggested reading 1. The Nightingale and the Rose - Oscar Wilde.

About the authorCount Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), the Russian novelist and moral philosopher, ranks as one of the world’s greatest writers. His “War and Peace” has been hailed as the greatest novel ever written. His ability to weave stories, his wonderful characters and his narrative capabilities are appreciated in every part of the world even to this day.



Before you read

Sunita was badly injured in an accident. Her leg was fractured. She was operated upon and the broken bone was joined using a steel rod. She was advised rest for a month. She could not move. She was angry that God had been very unfair to her. Her friend Anjali comforted her saying that she should look at those who were physically challenged since birth, and be grateful to the creator.

Now discuss in groups and find answers to the following :

1. Was Sunita right in being angry with God?

2. How did Anjali comfort Sunita?

3. Who should we be grateful to? Why?


Every human being is blessed with such organs as eyes, ears, lips and hands. Human beings have also a heart to love and a mind that gives them the ability to help others.

The poet says that one has to be grateful to the creator for granting all such possessions. He suggests that a good and positive use of the organs and the grace of the creator be made.


Listen to the poem recited. (The teacher reads / recites the poem)

Read the Poem


- Joseph T. Renaldi

I am grateful for the eyes that I can seethe activities that can be done by me.I am grateful for the ears that I may hearthe sobbing of those who need me near.

I am grateful for the lips that might speakwords of comfort and peace to all who seek.I am grateful for a mind that I might knowhow to aid those who need me so.

I am grateful for the hands that I might dosome arduous or simple task for you.I am grateful for the ability to always prayto give me the strength and guidance every day.

I am grateful for one thing, all else abovethat I was given a heart, that I may love.


sobbing : cryingcomfort : to make somebody, who is worried, feel betteraid : help

arduous : involving a lot of effort or energy


Understand the poem1. Why is the poet grateful for eyes and ears?

2. How do lips and mind help a human being?

3. What does the poet use his hands for?

4. Why does the poet place the heart above all else?

Read and appreciate1. Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.

Here are a few for you.

see-me, speak-seek

2. Which stanza do you like the most? Why?

3. Try and translate the poem into your mother tongue.

Know about the poet

Joseph T. Renaldi, originally from Windber, Pennsylvania, has spent forty years in the field of education. Since his retirement he spent much of his time in the visual arts, especially writing, painting, drawing, and woodcraft.

His popular poems are ‘A Binding Relationship’, ‘A Birthday Greeting and A Bountiful Harvest’. He

is the author of ‘The Willing Wind’, A Tale of Love and Obsession and an assortment of poetry. His poem ‘Graduation Day’ is the most read of all the poems he has written.

` ` `


UNIT - 3Prose

Before you readRead the extract from Mahatma Gandhi’s autobiography.

…when I was in the seventh standard Dorabji Edulji Gimi was the headmaster. He was popular among the boys, as he was a disciplinarian, a man of method and a good teacher. He had made gymnastics and cricket compulsory for boys of the upper standards. I disliked both. I never took part in any exercise, cricket or football, before they were made compulsory. My shyness was one of the reasons for this aloofness, which I now see was wrong. I then had the false notion that gymnastics had nothing to do with education. Today I know that physical training should have as much place in the curriculum as mental training.

Now sit with your partner. Ask your partner the following questions and discuss. Was Gandhiji right in his opinion? If yes, why? If not,


‘Should sports and games be made compulsory in schools and colleges’? Discuss.

Read on…

My Beginnings

- Kapil Dev


1. Looking back at my life, I have come to the conclusion that our beginnings never know our ends. For me it all started in Chandigarh, a small town nestling in the foothills of the Himalayas. I was born on a cold winter morning. My mother, who is a simple woman, could not read the time but she knew it was early in the morning. The date, 6th January 1959, was thankfully recorded because a cousin of mine was born on the same day, around the same time and with the same name! I grew up among six other brothers and sisters, all older than me, except one sister, who was a year younger.

2. My mother always regales me with tales of my naughty behaviour. She claims she never managed to control me ! But I do admit that right from the very beginning I found it hard to sit still. I was very curious and it was my ambition to travel around the world and drive a Mercedes Benz! God has been kind to me and both my wishes have been fulfilled. But at that time, twenty-five years ago, these dreams seemed like castles in the air.

Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. Kapil says, “The date, 6th January 1959, was thank-

fully recorded.” Why does he feel so?2. Kapil says, “But at that time…these dreams seemed

like castles in the air.” What were these dreams? Were these dreams realized?

3. What did Kapil’s mother always regale him with?4. Kapil uses an idiomatic expression ‘castles in the air’.

What does this mean?

3. I spent my childhood, like all the other children around me, trying to bunk school and save up enough money to go to a new movie or have a plate of chicken chowmein with my friends. If we were very broke or bored, we would amuse ourselves by breaking the fruit off our neighbour’s tree. I remembered one particular lady who lived down the road


from us who had a beautiful garden which she took great pride in. In it, she had papaya and pomegranate trees. I now sympathize with her, but in those days most of our time was spent planning how to get into her garden and pick the fruit off the trees. In fact, one day, we had climbed over the wall and were perched on the tree when the lady walked out with some guests. She was entertaining them for tea right under the papaya tree! There were two of us on the tree and two others on the road on the other side of the wall. The two fortunate ones who had been outside ran away but my friend and I had to sit still for nearly two hours till the tea party ended. That was the day I discovered the rash that papaya sap can cause!

4. I had a hard time explaining it to my mother. But I got even the next day when our neighbour went to Delhi for a couple of days. She had ninety-two pomegranates on the tree in her garden. She counted them every day because she knew we were up to mischief. As soon as her back was turned, we took down all ninety-two, ate whatever we could and distributed the rest. I remember the walloping I got from my mother when she was told about it on the neighbour’s return. Now, that very lady, with great pride and affection, tells anyone who cares to listen how I had taken ninety-two pomegranates from her garden and left the seeds behind.

Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. In what way was Kapil ‘like all the other children’ around

him?2. In the third paragraph Kapil says his neighbour’s lady

grew trees. What were the two trees grown there?


3. How did Kapil and his friends spend most of their time in their childhood?

4. What had Kapil done that he had to sit still for two hours?5. What discovery did Kapil make by sitting on the papaya

tree?6. “She counted them every day.” What did the lady count

every day? Why? “I got even the next day.” What does this mean? What does this tell us about Kapil?

5. The other really naughty thing I remember doing is riding the police horses that were left in the huge open green areas to graze. A few of my friends and I would go there regularly and try to ride them. They were huge police horses, not used to clumsy children scrambling on to them but despite innumerable falls and many a fright, I learnt to ride and control a horse. In fact, even today, I am quite comfortable on a horse without a saddle as that was the way I had taught myself to ride! Once we had learnt to master the horse (there was one I became particularly attached to), we became more courageous and ventured out of the fenced area with the horses. Nobody would have noticed except for the fact that I bit off more than I could chew. I decided to take the horse home and house him in our back garden which was about seven hundred square feet in size. The horse could probably have been tethered there, but I hadn’t anticipated the struggle I would have, in getting the animal through the tiny five and a half foot by two foot doorway! We were caught within minutes of our arrival. The horse, of course, was duly returned and the chiding I received from my father discouraged my venturing near the grazing fields again!

6. I was never very studious and always preferred to spend my time playing games and participating in athletics where I could use up my energy. I went to a small local school that had few cricketing facilities. The games they offered at that time were basketball, football, table tennis and hockey, probably because all they required was a ball, a couple of


sticks and a net. I was fairly good at all games, exceptionally good at athletics, but dreamed of becoming a footballer. I worked hard at that game and was selected to play for my school. Fortunately all my friends were interested in and played cricket and they convinced me to change my game. That is a decision I will always be grateful to them for, as they unconsciouly introduced me to the game for which I was made.

7. Slowly, almost imperceptibly, I switched from one game to the other and began to spend a lot of my time on the cricket field. Naturally, I played in a number of inter-school tournaments and came to be noticed as ‘a promising lad’ in the local press. But it was all merely fun to start with. I could never have imagined where cricket would lead me and I certainly had no plans then of becoming a professional at all.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. What naughty thing does Kapil narrate in the 7th

paragraph?2. ‘Nobody would have noticed except for the fact that I bit

off more than I could chew.’ What is the incident described here?

3. Why does Kapil say he bit off more than he could chew?4. How did Kapil’s father react to his escapade?5. What were the games offered in the local school where

Kapil was studying?6. Which game was Kapil fairly good at the during his school

days?7. ‘That is a decision I will always be grateful to them for, as

they unconsciously introduced me to the game for which I was made.’ What was the ‘decision’?

8. ‘But it was all merely fun to start with.’ What is Kapil talking about? Do you think cricket remained merely fun for him forever?


Glossary :nestle : to be surrounded by something, especially

hills or countrysideregale : to entertain someone by telling them about

somethingnaughty : behaving badlycastles in the air : plans or hopes that you have are unlikely

ever to become realambition : a strong desire to achieve somethingbunk : to suddenly leave a place without telling

anyoneamuse : to make someone laugh or smileperched on : to be in a position on top of something or

at the edge of somethingwalloping : to hit someone or something very hard,

especially with your handclumsy : action done carelessly or badly, and likely

to upset someonescrambling on : to move somewhere in a hurried awkward

wayfright : a sudden feeling of feartether : to be so tired that someone no longer could

deal with an upsetting situationanticipate : to expect that something will happen and

be ready for itventure : to do or try something that involves risksimperceptibly : almost impossible to see or noticestudious : spending a lot of time studying and readingfence : a wall or other structure that horses jump

over in a race or competitionclaim : to state that something is true, even though

it has not been proved


offer : to say that you are willing to do somethingsaddle : a leather seat that you sit on when you ride

a horse

Think about the textC1. Kapil narrates an incident from his childhood. Some

sentences related to his childhood life are given below. Working in pairs/groups, arrange them in the right order.a. A lady lived down the road and she had a beautiful

garden.b. She entertained the guests for tea right under the

papaya tree.c. Two others were on the road, on the other side of the

wall.d. One day Kapil and his friends climbed over the wall

and perched on the tree.e. That was the day Kapil discovered the rash that papaya

sap can cause.f. She took great pride in the papaya and pomegranate

trees which she had grown in her garden.g. Two friends who had been outside ran away. h. But Kapil and his friend had to sit for nearly two hours,

till the tea party ended.

C2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.a. Kapil was born into a large family.b. Kapil came to know about the date of his birth from

his mother.c. The lady who was a neighbour to Kapil counted ninety-

two pomegranates on the tree in her garden because she was good at mathematics.


d. The police horses became Kapil’s pet.e. Kapil was good at athletics and dreamed of becoming

a footballer.

C3. Imagine you are narrating Kapil’s childhood experiences to your friend.

How can you narrate this? You can begin…

Kapil shares two very interesting incidents with the reader.







V1. Study the following sets of words. Pick out the one that does not belong to the set. (Say why it doesn’t belong.)

1. football, athletics, basketball, volleyball – Athletics (because the other three are all ‘ball games’.)

2. coach, learner, teacher, trainer,

3. boxing, running, jumping, throwing

4. stamina, speed, skill, sports

5. victory, success, defeat, win

6. medal, shield, cup, competition.

V2. Notice the words given in brackets. Do you find anything special about these words? If you find, what is it?


(lick, munch, sip, drink, chew, swallow, eat, lap, dine, suck, gulp)

Sit in pairs/groups, discuss with your partner and fill in the blanks using the appropriate words given in brackets. You can change the form of the word.

1. They’d………………..……………………….their way through three packets of biscuits.

(to eat something noisily)2. A dog…………………………………………….……………

up the drops of milk spilt on the floor. (to move your tongue across the surface of something

in order to eat it)3. Ranjitha was sitting at the table…....................…her

coffee. (to drink something slowly)4. You should……………………….……plenty of water. (to

take liquid into your mouth)5. This nut is so tough I can hardly……………….…………

……………….……… it! (to bite food several times before swallowing it)6. Sathvik…………………………….……the last drop of his

coffee and asked for the bill. (to make food or drink go down your throat and into

your stomach)7. Hemanthini…………………..…………. up the last bit of

milkshake with her straw. (to take liquid into her mouth by making her lips form

a small hole) 8. A small girl was………………………………………………

an ice cream. (to put food in her mouth and chew and swallow it)9. The cat began to……………………………………………….

up the milk. (it drinks it by putting its tongue into it)10. Umesh was……………………….……. with friends at the

Taj Hotel. (to eat dinner)


V3. You are observing the cricket playground. Work in pairs or groups. Pick up the words from the brackets and fill the words in the appropriate boxes.

(long off, point, cover, extra cover, mid-off, bowler, sightscreen, long on, mid-on, batsman, mid-wicket, silly mid-on, squire leg, deep square leg, slip or short fine leg, long leg, deep fine leg, wicket keeper, sightscreen, slips, gully, silly mid-off, third man)

Similarly, refer a visual dictionary and know the different words used in different games. Read and respondRead silently.

The Greeks started the Olympic Games on the plains of Olympia. Their last Olympic Games were held in 261 AD. These games were started again in 1896 and are held once every four years.

At the Olympic Games of 1928 in Amsterdam, Bobby Pearce won a gold medal for a rowing race. He also won the hearts of all who saw him win.


Bobby Pearce was born in Sydney in Australia. His father was a great sculling champion. When Bobby was five, he was rowing around Sydney harbour in a small boat. Before long he won his first race, competing against fourteen-year-olds. One of the judges asked him, ‘How old are you, Bobby?’ and he replied proudly, ‘Six, sir!’

By the time he was twenty, Bobby was the sculling champion of Australia. The following year he went to Amsterdam to compete in the Olympic Games. In the finals, he competed against Ken Myers of America. From the start of the race, Bobby was in the lead. At the half way stage he was still leading, and very much ahead of Myers. It seemed that Bobby would easily win.

Then suddenly something happened. Bobby heard a shout from the banks and looked over his shoulder. He saw a duck and her brood of ducklings swimming across the canal. They were swimming into the course of his boat and the boat was going to run into them. The poor birds had no idea that they were in the middle of an Olympic race!

Immediately Bobby slowed his boat down. Myers was catching up very fast. The people on the shore were shouting as if they were mad. But Bobby waited patiently until all the ducklings were out of harm’s way. Then he picked up speed again and went on to win the race easily.

Of all the Olympic heroes, it was he who won everybody’s heart. A Dutch newspaper wrote, ‘he won the goodwill of the children of Amsterdam.’

His friends in the Australian Olympic team were not surprised by the incident. ‘Bobby is that kind of a bloke,’ they said.


From the age of six, Bobby Pearce competed in races for thirty-three years and retired from sports in 1945. How many of these races do you think he lost? Not one!

Now sit in pairs/ groups and discuss the questions/issues given below.

1. Bobby Pearce was ready to lose the race to save the ducks. How did this incident impress everybody?

2. Should sports persons try to win at all costs? Or should they be thoughtful and kind even at the risk of losing?

3. “Sentiment, or killing spirit” what do you feel is more important in a game?

Speak well

Expressing Appreciation and Encouragement.

Read the following conversation. Take roles and practise.(Class Teacher and a student, who participated in the District Level Volley Ball Contest.)

Class Teacher : Hello Ananda, congratulations.

Ananda : Thank you sir.

Class Teacher : It seems you are so sad today.

Ananda : I’m not satisfied with my performance, sir.

Class Teacher : I came to know that you did fairly well in the event.

Ananda : Of course sir, I practised hard and performed well. Still I had to satisfy myself with the second place.


Class Teacher : Don’t worry. Be confident. You’ve many opportunities still.

Ananda : Surely, I’ll do better.

Class Teacher : Ananda, you know, I often used to tell you that a journey of a 1000 miles begins with a single step. This is the first step.

Ananda : Thank you for your encouraging words, sir.

Class Teacher : See Ananda, you are young and energetic. You have enthusiasm also. You can achieve whatever you wish for.

Ananda : Certainly, I always try to do my best sir.

Class Teacher : Keep it up. That’s the spirit. Go ahead.

Ananda : With your blessings sir.

Class Teacher : Better luck.

Listen and comprehend

Your teacher will read out the text. Listen carefully. While listening, draw the route map.

One day I came out of my home. It was a fine morning. As I was going towards my boat, I was surprised to see the footprint of a man on the sand. I stood amazed! I listened; I looked around me. I could neither hear nor see anything. I went up the hill to look down, but I could see nothing. I came down the hill back to my boat. I went up the shore and down again to my boat, but it was no good. I went into the woods and came out of the woods from the West. I once again went up the hill and down again but I could find no other footprint but that one. I went to have a look at the footprint again to tell if it had been my imagination.


But I was not mistaken – for there was exactly the print of a foot toes, heel, and every part of the foot.

I stood a long time thinking, but became more confused. At last I returned home very frightened looking behind me every few steps.

Language in use

Study the underlined words:

1. New Year’s Day is a very ancient custom.

2. Listen, your friends are calling you.

3. Why do you buy these things now?

4. One of my friends has won the first prize.

5. My friend did not know how to prepare kites.

6. Yesterday he was in Bengaluru.

You have already studied the use of the primary auxiliaries, that is, the verbs ‘be’, ‘do’ and ‘have’. Anyway let us brush up our knowledge of them with the help of the examples. Clues and full sentences are given. Study them.

Clues SentencesLook – Madhuri – dance Look, Madhuri is dancing.

Usually – she – not – dance – morn-ing

Usually, she does not dance in the morning.

Have – you – learn – dance? Have you learnt dancing?

That girl – dance – good – for near-ly an hour

That girl has been dancing well for nearly an hour.

I – not know – you can dance. I did not know you could dance.


Those girls – be – learn – from – Madhuri

Those girls are learning dancing from Madhuri.

So, I – go – meet – Madhuri – today So, I am going to meet Madhuri today.

Madhuri – had – stay – here – yes-terday Madhuri had stayed here yesterday.

Do – meet – her – Kalamandir? Did you meet her at Kalamandir?

No – I not – she – go out – before – I – go – there

No, I did not meet her, she had gone out before I went there.

Primary Auxiliaries (Helping Verbs)

Form Present Past

Positive Negative Positive Negative

Beam am not (amn’t) was was not (wasn’t)

is is not (isn’t) was was not (wasn’t)

are are not (aren’t) were were not (weren’t)

Dodo do not (don’t) did did not (didn’t)

does does not (doesn’t) did did not (didn’t)

Havehave have not (haven’t) had had not (hadn’t)

has has not (hasn’t) had had not (hadn’t)


Choose the right word given in brackets:1. The use of credit cards…..…(has/have) increased

hundredfold in the last decade.2. Half the students of the class……………………….(was/

were) absent yesterday.3. The number of poisonous snakes……………….....(is/

are) not known accurately.4. I…………………………………………..……….(am/is/was)

not hungry now. 5. We……………………………………..(hadn’t/hasn’t/

haven’t) seen him of late. 6. Salim…………………….......………..………(do not/does

not) know how to cook.

Practise writingRead the information given in the boxes about different

sports. Write in paragraphs using the given information. One is done for you. (For more information you can consult an encyclopedia.)

Sl. No.

Sport Description of the sport

Rules Key words

Famous sports persons

National Game of…

Cups organized

Mate-rials needed


*outdoor game, team sport. *Players hit the ball in to the goal using sticks.

*Two teams of 11 players *The game consists of three 20-minute periods.

penalty corner goal

Dhyanchand INDIA Hockey World Cup Dhyanchand Cup

hockey-stick ballguard etc.,


*indoor game.

*players move the pieces.

*Play starts with the white piece*the players take turns moving one piece at a time until the game ends.

check draw

Vishwanathan Anand,


World Chess Champ ionship

board piecesetc.


Sl. No.

Sport Description of the sport

Rules Key words

Famous sports persons

National Game of…

Cups organized

Mate-rials needed


*outdoor game.*players kick the ball with their foot

*Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from “loitering” around the opponents’ goal.

Goal, penalty, kick boun dary line

Mardona SPAIN FIFA World Cup

ball net pole etc.


*outdoor game. *played between two players (singles) or be-tween two teams of two play-ers each (doubles). *Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball cov-ered with felt over a net into the op-ponent’s court.

*One player hits or serves the ball from a corner of a marked out area called a court.* The opposite player’s goal is to return the ball, bouncing it no more than once in his own court, aiming for the other player to not be able to hit it. *A point is gained when a player is not able to return the ball at all or he hits it out

Love,ace, serve

Leander Paes, Mahesh Bhupati, Sania Mirza

No country has tennis as the national sport

French Open, Wimble don etc.,

net ball,racketetc.


Sl. No.

Sport Description of the sport

Rules Key words

Famous sports persons

National Game of…

Cups organized

Mate-rials needed

of the court. *The ball is always served cross court or diagonally. *The overall goal of tennis is to gain points to win games, sets and matches


*outdoor game. *The game is played with 20-minute halves and a five-min-ute half-time break during which the teams switch sides of the court

* Two teams of seven members each *the raider enters the other half, earns points by tackling members of the opposing team. *the raider tries to return to his own half, hold-ing his breath and chanting the word “Ka-baddi” during the whole raid.*If he doesn't do so, then he will be declared as “out”.


National Kabaddi Champi-onship

Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball which flies over a net into the opponent’s court. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a good return.

In this play, one player hits or serves the ball from a corner of a marked out area called a court. The opposite player’s goal is to return the ball, bouncing it no more than once in his own court, aiming for the other player to not be able to hit it.


A point is gained when a player is not able to return the ball at all or he hits it out of the court. The ball is always served cross court or diagonally. The overall goal of tennis is to gain points to win games, sets and matches.

Tennis is enjoyed by millions of recreational players and is also a hugely popular worldwide spectator sport, especially the four Grand Slams the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, and the US Open played also on hard courts. Famous players are Peter Sampras, Steffi Graf, Serena Williams, Mahesh Bhupathi and others.

Make reference

Study all the ‘sports’ entries in the dictionary.

Now fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of ‘sports’ from the extract above:

1. “Why do you take it seriously? Lokesh has said it ...……...………..”

2. In olden days hunting was a………………………………

3. I hope,being a…………….…..........., you would lend me your book.

4. Why don’t you watch TV? There is too much……..on TV today.


5. Cricket is the most popular……………..……………… India.

6. Street dogs, I agree, are a menace. But killing them is a bad………….

7. Rajesh plays state level Kabaddi. He always remembers his school which encouraged team…….

Do the project

Prepare an album collecting information about the famous sportspersons in your locality who have participated in state, national or international games.

Suggested reading1. ‘Straight from the Heart’ – Kapil Dev

2. ‘My Experiments with Truth’ – Mahatma Gandhi

3. ‘A Long Walk to Freedom’ – Nelson Mandela

4. ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ – Anna Frank

5. A Biography Of Rahul Dravid – Prabhudesai Devendra

About the author

Kapil Dev Ramlal Nikhanj is the full name of Kapil Dev. He was born on 6th January, 1959 in Chandigarh. He was India’s greatest all rounder.In his captaincy, Indian Cricket Team won the 1983 World Cup. In his autobiography “Straight from the Heart” Kapil narrates his childhood experiences.

* * *


POETRYBefore you readLook at the following pictures.

Work in pairs/groups. Identify the game and write the name of the game in the space provided. Names of the sports are given in brackets.

(basketball, volleyball, cricket, badminton, cycling, fencing, weightlifting, discus throw, archery, shooting, tennis, swimming, running race, sailing, table tennis

Have a circle talk and ask the following questions to your friends and exchange your feelings:-

1. Which games do you play?

2. What is your favourite game?

3. Who is your favourite player?


You have learnt something about sports and games. They are the source of enjoyment, aren’t they? Here is a poem which projects how an athlete made sports a passion, ever since her school days.


Listen to the poem

Your teacher will read out the poem. Listen to it carefully.

A Girl Called Golden-David Bateson

Why did you runWhen your schoolmates were walking?Why did you sprintIf they started to run?Why did you trainwhile others were playing?What was the secretThat made it seem fun?

Was it the feelof the fresh air and sunshine?Was it the stirof the breeze in your hair?What made the coachrecognize you were special?Was it becauseyou had courage to spare?

Showing your willwhen the muscles were aching,Long spells of effortand much to be learned,Heeding the wordsthat some others rejected,Knowing that winning could only be earned.


Time slipped awaythen came the Olympics;Still in your teens but spurred on by the cheers;Glory at last –as you gained your gold medals,A time to remember the rest of your years.

About The Poem : The ode (a poem in praise of) is written on Betty Cuthbert by name Elizabeth Cuthbert who was an Australian ath-lete. She was a great sprinter and had won three gold med-als at the 1956 Olympic games in Melbourne. She added a fourth gold medal at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo.

About The PoetDavid Bateson (1921-1998) was an Australian poet and a photographer. David was well-known among the network of children's authors and illustrators who met at the journalists' club at Sydney. Besides writing poems for children, David was interested in ocean theatre and photography. He has published children’s poems in numerous magazines and has anthologies of his own.


Glossary :Betty Cuthbert : pronounced as 'Betty Kuthbert' (¨ÉnÖ PÀvï§mïð)

sprint : to run or go very fast for a short distance.

coach : a person who teaches and trains an athlete or performer

spurred : (here) encouraged to try harder to achieve something

spells : (here) a period of time

heed : to pay careful attention to somebody's advice or warning

glory : fame, praise or honour

Working in pairs groups, answer the following ques-tions :

1.Which of the following descriptions best suits the poem ?

a) Praising Betty Cuthbertb) Criticizing Betty Cuthbertc) Questioning Betty Cuthbert.

2. Look at the first stanza and complete the table:

Betty Cuthbert Her school matesa) She ran ...............................b) .................... they ranc) ..................... they played


3. Which line in the first stanza suggests that Betty actually enjoyed what she was doing?

4. There are questions in the first stanza which are answered in the second stanza again as questions.

Relate them with the help of your partner.

e.g.,:- Why did you run when your schoolmates were working?

Was it the feel of the fresh air and sunshine?5. What made the coach recognize that Betty was

special? a) She was brave and a fast runner. b) She was determined and hard working. c) She gave him advice about running. d) She was prepared to accept his advice. (Tick the right choices)6. Which lines in the third stanza suggest that it is not easy to become a winner?7. Betty was very young when she won gold medals

at the Olympics. Pick out the word that suggests this.

8. Do you think the title, ‘A Girl called Golden’ is appropriate? Give reasons.

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Recite and enjoy


- P.G. Wodehouse

The sun in the heavens was beaming,The breeze bore an odour of hay,My flannels were spotless and gleaming,My heart was unclouded and gay;The ladies, all gaily apparelled,Sat round looking on at the match,In the tree-tops the dicky-birds carolled,All was peace – till I bungled that catch. 8

My attention the magic of summerHad lured from the game – which was wrong.The bee (that inveterate hummer)Was droning its favourite song,I was tenderly dreaming of Clara(On her not a girl is a patch),When, ah, horror! There soared through the air a Decidedly possible catch. 16

I heard in a stupor the bowlerEmit a self-satisfied ‘Ah!’The small boys who sat on the rollerSet up an expectant ‘Hurrah!’The batsman with grief from the wicketHimself had begun to detach – And I uttered a groan and turned sick.It was over. I’d buttered the catch, 24


O, ne’er, if I live to a million,Shall I feel such a terrible pang.From the seats on the far-off pavilionA loud yell of ecstasy rang.By the handful my hair (which is auburn)I tore with a wrench from my thatch,And my heart was seared deep with a raw burnAt the thought that I’d foozled that catch. 32

Ah, the bowler’s low, querulous mutterPoints loud, unforgettable scoff!Oh, give me my driver and putter!Henceforward my game shall be golfIf I’m asked to play cricket hereafter,I am wholly determined to scratch.Life’s void of all pleasure and laughter;I bungled the easiest catch. 40

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UNIT - 4

ProseBefore You Read :

Your teacher will read the following dialogues. Listen to the dialogues.

AA : Why are you so dull like a lamb?B : What’s that to you?A : Do you lose anything by saying it?B : Well, I’ve lost my money. Can you get it?A : Ah! I know you’re always irresponsible.B : Keep your mouth shut, will you?

BA : You’re a bit down, may I know why?B : Chetan, my purse is stolen.A : Really sorry. If you don’t mind, I’ll lend you money.B : Thanks a lot, but I don’t need it now.A : All right. Don’t let it bother you too much.B : You’re right anyway, I feel better with your encour-

aging words.

Which dialogue do you think is more politely worded? Discuss with your partner.

Read onWhatever we do

- Clifford Martis

1. Whatever we do, let’s try to do it better. Our actions, our words, whatever it is, let us try to do it better. Success, they say, is a journey and not a destination. We can say, progress also


is a journey and not a destination. Therefore, we need not feel complacent that we are doing fine. We must constantly be on the lookout for better performance.

2. If I want to thank someone I can say, “Thanks”. But suppose I say, “Thanks a lot,” wouldn’t it be better? Depending upon the time and the situation, we can try and improve this even further and say, “I am very grateful to you” or “You’ve been of great help. I thank you from the bottom of my heart!” and so on.

3. This is a simple case of expressing gratitude. But when we think a little more, we can learn to do or say things in a better way by giving some thought to our action or speech. I had an appointment with a person, who was senior to me in our erstwhile company. I was a bit late and trying to make amends. I said, “I’m sorry I made you wait.” “Oh! It’s Ok” he said, and added, “it’s a pleasure waiting for you.” I felt flattered. One might argue that the other person might have said it without any thinking. Even then, I would say that I like to hear such statements unless, of course, they were said sarcastically.

4. When we speak about saying or doing things better, a question arises about comparison, because better usually follows ‘than’. Wise people say that we should compare ourselves with our own selves. I should compare my performance of last year and see whether I am doing better or not now.

5. One of the ways in which we can do better is by adding words to our actions and also adding actions to our words. Let me tell you about an incident. I was waiting for the lift. The lift came down and I found that two fellows (shouldn’t I say, persons or even better, gentlemen?) started removing packets which were fully occupying the lift. I noticed that they did the job fairly fast giving me an impression that they did not want to delay me. In a little while, they finished the job and I got into the lift and went to my Training centre. In the class, I mentioned this incident and asked the trainees to explain how this particular situation would have been rendered better. A couple of trainees did mention that the two gentlemen who were removing the packets could have


said just something like, “One minute sir, we’ll finish in no time.” Nice answer. Don’t you agree? It would have made such a difference. But another trainee said, “You could have thought of lending a helping hand to them.”

Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. The author says, “Let us make them better and better”.

What does the word ‘them’ stand for here?2. Imagine that a parent of your friend says, “Work only for

the result”. How would you respond to this statement?3. What are the ways in which we usually thank a person

for having helped?4. How do you react if others make you wait?5. Why does the author lay emphasis on adding words to

our actions and also on adding actions to our words?6. What sort of word and what kind of action would make

any situation better?

Read on6. You go to a shop and ask for something. Most often the shop-keeper or the sales person reaches out to the item you want and hands it over to you. No word, nothing. Suppose he were to say just two words, “Yes sir?” In posh restaurants the waiters or stewards do say, “Good morning”, or some such thing and then ask for your order. But have you noticed how the waiters behave in most of our restaurants, in spite of the fact that the food and ambience are quite good? They usually come and stand near you expecting you to place the order. Suppose they say just two words, “Yes sir?”

7. Doctors treating patients can make their jobs much better if they choose to talk nicely to their pa-tients. A word here or a word there. Most doctors are serious or even stern. Probably they imply that they


are doing serious work. But talking nicely and reassuringly is also a part of treatment, isn’t it? It is said that a couple of friend-ly words from the doctor or even a smile can go a long way in making the patient feel better.8. On a certain occasion I hailed an autorickshaw and said, “City Hos-pital”. The auto man did not look at me but simply ‘downed’ the meter. Well, it was a clear indication that he was willing to take me to my des-tination, but wouldn’t it have been much better if he had said, “Yes sir, please get in”, or simply said, “Come”. The least he could have done was to make a gesture with his face or hand. I did mention the point to him and to my good luck he agreed with me. On another occasion I called an auto and said, “Central market”. He said, “Sorry sir, it’s time for me to hand over the auto”, and so saying he hailed another auto and asked, “Guru, Central market?” That man agreed and I got in. This shows that we can say ‘No’ also in the most pleasant way.

9. Even a very ordinary thing like giving alms to a beggar can be done in a better way. “Here, take this,” we can say nicely and with some feeling. What do most people do? They refuse to look at the beggar. If he persists they indicate that he should go ahead. Some say, “Munde hogappa (Go further)”, or some such thing. Some don’t say anything but try to shun the beggar by their body language. And finally when the giving becomes inevitable, they give grudgingly. If we decide to give alms, should we not do so gracefully? In Mumbai they have a nice way of saying, “Maph Karo” (please excuse). It’s a nice way of saying, “Sorry, I am not able to give”.

10. We have a number of notices, instructions and orders like ‘No Parking’, ‘No Smoking’, ‘No Admission’, ‘Visitors’ cars not Allowed’ and so on and so forth. Don’t these terms sound rather rough? True, people are trying to be brief because brevity is a genuine need in such public notices. But we have seen


that at least in the case of smoking, people have made some innovation. Nowadays they write, “Thank You for Not Smoking”.

11. Can’t we try to use better terms in other cases also? I am not suggesting that in every case we should say, “Thank you for ……” We can think of innovative methods to make our orders, instructions and notices sound more polite, more polished. In south India, some restaurants are famous for the tasty fare they offer. Naturally therefore, they have big rush and it is a problem for the management. In one such restaurant I saw a board, “Don’t sit here for a long time”. How odd! Can they not say the same thing in better words? Luckily, I saw in another place a board, “Please make room for waiting customers”. In yet another place I saw a notice which read, “Kindly make room for waiting friends”.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. How do you think doctors can improve their image with

their language?2. Whatdifferencedoyoufindintheautorickshawdriver’s

response? Discuss.3. If we decide to give alms to a beggar, how should we give

it? 4. How would public notices need to be changed, according

to the author?5. Pick out any public notice. Try to make it read more polite.

Read on12. It is our practice to be brief while sending telegrams. Here again the reason is brevity. We want to save words in order to cut costs. So if someone wants to request his brother to receive him at the station he might send a telegram somewhat like this. “REACHING MUMBAI THURSDAY (STOP) SHATABDI (STOP) MEET STATION”. Now just for the sake of one single word the telegram has become totally devoid of any courtesy. What could


be the additional cost of adding ‘please’? Nowadays the telegram has been relegated to the background due to the coming of the telephone and the internet. But have we solved the issue of courtesy? Don’t we see (or should I say, hear?) people ask, “Who’s this?” instead of saying, “May I know who is calling please?” In a certain book on communication I found a very interesting method of asking who is calling. If you call Mr. Patel in his office, his secretary will receive the call and before connecting to Mr. Patel she would want to know who the caller is so that she can inform the same to Mr. Patel .What does the secretary say? She does not say, “Who’s this?” or even, “May I know who is calling, please?” She says, “Can I tell Mr. Patel who is calling, please?” The idea is this – You want to talk to Mr. Patel. I do not wish to know who you are. But I must tell Mr. Patel who is calling him. Therefore, I am requesting you to tell me who you are.

13. Consider how we respond when someone says ‘Thank you’ to us. In the olden days people used to say, “Don’t mention it” Later people started using the phrase “It’s all right” Nowadays people say, “You are welcome” or simply “Welcome”.

14. One method of our improving our communication with others is to put ‘You’ before ‘I’ as far as possible. Consider some words like union, united, building, guiding, trusting, communication and so on. In these words the letter ‘U’ comes before the letter ‘I’. This indicates to us that we should try to put ‘You’, that is the other person before I. If I wish to thank someone for the nice party I can say, “Your party was so enjoyable. I thank you”. Another instance “Your letter made me very happy…”

15. It may be noted that there is no limit to the improvement we can make in our action or speech. Nor can we say that a particular action or form of speech is the best. There is no formula. What is best may depend on the occasion and it may be possible to continuously make improvement. The whole idea is to be aware of the need and importance of doing and saying things better and better.


Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. What word usually makes our enquiries more polite?

Illustrate with an example.2. Imagine that you are talking to someone on the phone.

How would you start the conversation?3. Read paragraph-14 carefully. Do you agree with the

comparison made there? Discuss.4. Why does the author say that there is no formula for

best action or best form of speech?

Glossarydestination : a place to which someone is going.complacent : too pleased or satisfied with oneself.suppose : to think or believe that something is true.gratitude : the feeling of being grateful make amends : compensate ; make up forsarcastically : a way of using words that are opposite of

what you mean; satiricallyambience : the character and atmosphere of a place reassuringly : by way of restoring confidencealms : money, clothes, food given away to the poor persist : to behave firmlyinnovation : introduction of new things or ideasfare : oldfashioned or formal food that is offered as

a mealdevoid of : lacking; emptycourtesy : good mannersrelegate : give less importanceThink about the textWorking in pairs/groups attempt the following questions :C1. The author gives a number of instances of expressions that

sound odd or unpleasant. Find all such expressions from the text and rewrite them in a polite form.


C2. Recall a situation that still makes you feel pleased by the speaker’s words. Why? Discuss.

C3. How can we react if someone says ‘No’? Why? Discuss.

VocabularyV1. Read the following statements and working in pairs/

groups try to guess the meanings of the underlined words from the context:

1. Success is a journey not a destination.

2. Please make room for waiting customers.

3. In posh restaurants the waiters or stewards do say, “Good morning”.

4. On a certain occasion I hailed an autorickshaw.

5. Some don’t say anything but try to shun the beggar by their body language.

6. And finally when the giving becomes inevitable they give grudgingly.

7. In South India some restaurants are famous for the tasty fare they offer.

V2. i) Work with your partner and match words under A with their meanings under B.

(Refer to a good dictionary if necessary)

A Berstwhilegratefulflatteredshungrudge

to be pleased when someone praises youavoid; rejectfeeling or showing thanksresentformer; previous


ii) Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with appropriate words or word forms given under column A above.

1. Aditi ______________having to pay so much tax. 2. Santosh knew Krishna was only ______him because

he wanted to borrow some money. 3. Vittal’s _______________friends turned against him. 4. Students have to be _____________to all the teachers

for their help. 5. Rukmini has ___________publicity since she retired

from theatre.

Read and RespondR1. Read the railway time table given below. Frame as

many questions as you can with your partner. Find the answers and discuss.

e.g., 1. Where does the Howrah Express depart from?

Ans: The Howrah Express departs from Yeshwantpur Junction.

2. Does Basava Express arrive in Bagalkot at 12.10 p.m.?

Ans: Yes, Basava Express arrives in Bagalkot at 12.10 p.m.







0690 Vijayapura-YeshwantpurExpress


04:50 pm YeshwantpurJunction/YPR

06:45 am

2864 Howrah Express


07:35 pm HowrahJunction/HWH

06:10 am

1018 Chalukya Express


06:30am DadarCentral/DR









2080 Hubballi Jn Shatabdi Express

Hubballi Junction/UBL

02:00 pm Bengaluru City Junction /SBC

09:10 pm

6513 Basava Express

Yeshwantpur 05:25 pm Bagalkot/BGK

12:10 pm

Speak wellI. Function - Showing preference and making suggestions.

S1. Look at this conversation between Padma and Pramod.Padma : Why don’t we go into town and see if that new

book is out yet?Pramod : Yes, we could do that, but I’d rather go next week

because I should be able to get some more money by then.

Padma : Ok, let’s go next week instead. But what are we going to do today….?

The phrases in bold italics are making suggestions or showing a preference. Think of more examples of language which could be used. Copy and complete the table below and compare your ideas with a partner or classmate.


Making suggestion Showing preference

_______________________ _______________________

_______________________ _______________________

Usually when we show a preference for something, we also give a reason. e.g., I’d rather go next week because I should be able to get some more money by then.Look at how suggestion and preference phrases are followed by infinitive, ‘to’ infinitive or gerund forms of the verb:

Why don’t we Would you like What/How about + do? + to do? + doing?Let’s + do I’d rather + do What do you think about + doing?I suggest we + do I’d like + to do I suggest + doingCan’t we + do? I(d) prefer + to do I think we should + do

Listening and comprehending Close your books. Your teacher will narrate a story.

Listen carefully, think and answer the questions given below orally.

The golden eagleOnce a man found an eagle’s egg and placed it under a

brooding hen. The eagle hatched with the chickens and grew to be like them. He clucked and cackled; scratched the earth for worms; flapped his wings and managed to fly a few feet in the air. Years passed. One day, the eagle, now grown old, saw a magnificent bird above him in the sky. It glided in graceful majesty against the powerful wind, with scarcely a movement of its golden wings.

Spellbound, the eagle asked “Who is that?”

“That’s the king of the birds, the eagle”, said his neighbour.


“He belongs to the sky. We belong to the earth – we’re chickens”.

So the eagle lived and died a chicken, for that’s what he thought he was.

Source: Discovery – J.M. Sampath

Answer the following questions in a sentence or two:

1. What did the eagle see in the sky?

2. Why do you think the eagle died a chicken? Discuss.

3. What are your limitations your thoughts or your environment? Reflect and share with your partner.

4. How do you see your real self and break the influence of your environment? Share your views.

Language in use

Simple Present Tense

I. Study the table below and record your hobbies in the last row. Compose sentences using persons and their hobbies/routines. Add adverbs if necessary. Then compare your sentences with those of your partners.

e.g., 1. Father practises meditation every day. 2. I usually drink milk at night.





reads news paper

tries new recipe

goes trekking

researches in ISRO

practises meditation

goes to school

browses internet

paints pictures

writes articles

visits temple

works in NGO

helps mother

goes on morning walk

sings Vachanas

supports self-help groups

takes wild photographs

II. Your teacher conducts this activity for you. Follow his/her instructions carefully.

Activity: “Something special”


Procedure1. Ask each student to think of, and perhaps write down,

one interesting (present) fact about himself or herself (an unusual hobby, habit, characteristic, possession, etc.) that he or she would be willing to talk about and do the same yourself.

e.g., I go bird watching every weekend. I only eat natural food.2. Tell the students the special fact about yourself. Answer

questions or elaborate a little.3. Invite students to share their ‘special things.’ Answer

questions and discuss them. e.g., What’s something special about you? I collect coins.4. Ask the students to exchange their notebooks and read

their interesting facts using he/she …….. e.g., He fishes on Sundays. She attends dance classes.

Note: Students can write a paragraph about their topics and present them later in the class.

Practise Writing – Group workWriting a message 1. Imagine there is a phone call for your brother; he is not

there. Listen to what the caller has to say and leave a message for your brother.

At 1-30 p.m. the phone rings…………….. Rajesh : Hello, May I speak to Shivaraj?Sania : May I know who is calling please?Rajesh : I’m Rajesh, Shivaraj’s friend.Sania : That’s fine, but he’s gone out.Rajesh : Could you please inform him to be at the football

ground by 5 p.m. evening?

Sania : Certainly, I will.


Compare your message/note with the one given below.

Dear ShivarajRajesh called. He wants you at the football ground by 5 p.m.Sania06.02.20121-30 p.m.

2. You have to attend an important family function tomorrow. Therefore, you will not be able to attend classes. Write a note informing your friend/classmate about this and asking him/her to help you with the lessons/class notes.

Suggested Reading1. Function in English – Jon Blundell, Jonathan Higgens, Nigel

Middlemiss: Oxford University Press2. English Conversation Practice – Grant Taylor: McGraw Hill.

Know about the Author About the author: Clifford Martis is a Christian by birth, a socialist by choice and a lawyer by profession. He studied in Don Bosco High school, Lonavala, Pune in 1969. He lives in Mumbai his home town is Mahim in Maharashtra. He works with ‘Every child our child’ organization to bring happiness on every child’s face. He is an RTI activist.

` ` `


POETRYBefore you read 1. Look at the words and phrases in the box and mime them.

astonished, thanking someone , requesting for help, being happy, feel nervous, apologizing to someone, helping a blind person cross the road

2. Suppose you have been to a strange place where people use a language which is different from yours /new to you. How will you communicate with them in that situation? Discuss with your friends.

IntroductionThe words that we speak reflect our inner strengths and one’s own personality. Now, your teacher will read out a poem. Listen to it carefully.

The Wonderful Words(Memorization)

- Mary O’NeillNever let a thought shrivel and dieFor want of a way to say itFor English is a wonderful game And all of you can play it. 4All that you do is match the words To the brightest thoughts in your head So that they come out clear and trueAnd handsomely groomed and fed-For many of the loveliest things Have never yet been said. 10Words are the food and dress of thoughtThey give it its body and swing And everyone’s longing today to hearSome fresh and beautiful thing: 14

But only words can free a thought From its prison behind your eyesMay be your mind is holding nowA marvellous new surprise! 18


Glossary shrivel : wrinkle, dry up, waste awaygroom : brush, clean upswing : move to and fromarvellous : wonderful, splendidlonging : desire, thirst, yearningholding : carry, grasp

Understand the poemI. Answer the following questions and discuss the respons-

es with your partner.1. What does the poet ask us not to let die?2. “English is a game to play.” How does the poet justify

it?3. The poet speaks about matching words. What should

we match the words with?4. What has never been said yet, according to the poet?5. Read lines 11 and 12 in the poem: ‘Words are the food and dress of thought They give it its body and swing.’ What do you understand by these lines? 6. What does everyone try to hear and see afresh?7. The poet mentions ‘prison’ in line 16. What according

to her, is imprisoned?II. Read and appreciate

1. Which lines in the poem strike you the most? For example, in line one the poet says ‘Never let a thought shrivel and die’. This is a thought - provoking line. Can you think of some other lines which are highly thought- provoking? Discuss in a small group and share your responses.

2. ‘Words alone are good’ says a great Indian poet. Can you relate the meaning of the statement with the theme of the poem you have studied? Share your ideas with your classmates.


3. Our philosophy advocates the oneness-unanimity of Kaya (work),Vaacha (speech) and Manasa (thoughts).How far does this poem support this philosophy?

Know about the authorMary Devenport O’Neill (1879 – 1967) was an Irish poet and dramatist and a friend and colleague of W. B. Yeats, Russell, and Austin Clarke. Mary Davenport was born in Loughrea, County Gal-way, Ireland. She was a pupil of the Dominican Convent in Eccles Street, Dublin. She studied teaching at the Metropolitan College of Art (the present-day National College of Art, Dublin) from 1889-1902. She published three verse plays, Bluebeard (1933), Cain (1945) and Out of The Darkness (1947). Her collection, Prometheus and Other Poems, was the first collection of poetry published by an Irish poet, besides Yeats, which could be considered modernist. She is one of a small number of known early 20th century Irish modernist women poets.

Recite and enjoyThe Ladder to Success

- H.W. LongfellowWe have not wings – we cannot soar –

But we have feet to scale and climbBy slow degrees – by more and more -

The cloudy summits of our time. 4The mighty pyramids of stone

That wedge like cleave the desert airs,When nearer seen and better known,

Are but gigantic flights of stairs. 8The distant mountains, that uprear

Their frowning foreheads to the skies,Are crossed by pathways, that appear

As we to higher levels rise. 12 The heights by great men reached and kept,

Were not attained by sudden flight;But they, while their companions slept,

Were toiling upward in the night. 16

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UNIT - 5

ProseBefore you read Enact the following scene

(King Rama’s court. Rama, Laxman and courtiers are sitting. A servant, who has something to say, comes and stands hesi-tantly.)

Rama (to the servant): Speak up. You have nothing to fear.

Servant : O, King, I can’t! Not in the presence of revered Laxman and the wisest courtiers.

Rama : You have my protection. Speak your mind.

Servant : Maharaja, today I saw a washerman, beating his wife black and blue. He told her to get out of his house. He said he was not Rama to accept a wife after she had lived in another’s custody.

(There is some commotion in the court.)

Laxman : The washerman deserves a lesson for his nonsen-sical comment about mother Sita.

Courtiers (all): Yes Maharaj, he must be punished.

Rama : My dear Laxman and courtiers, the remarks of the washerman do have some implications. I know and for that matter everyone knows what a great lady Sita is. But when such remarks are made, the Raja Dharma dictates that it is necessary for Sita to prove herself spotless. Dear Laxman, Sita has expressed her desire to be in the sacred company of the sages. I command you to take Sita to the jungle and leave her there for sometime.


Justice Above Self

- Munshi Premchand Read on

Part I1. Jumman Shaikh and Algu Chowdhary were good friends. So strong was their bond of friendship that when either of them went away from the village, the other looked after his family. Both were greatly respected in the village.

2. Jumman had an old aunt who had some property. This she transferred to him on the understanding that she would stay with him and he would look after her. The arrangement worked well for a couple of years. But thereafter the situation changed. Jumman and his family were tired of the old relative. Jumman became as indifferent to her as his wife, who grudged even the little food that the old lady needed for survival. She swallowed these insults along with her food for a few months. But patience has its limits.

3. One day she spoke to Jumman, “My son, it is now obvious that I am not wanted in your house. Kindly give me a monthly allowance so that I can set up a separate kitchen.”

“My wife knows best how to run the house. Be patient,” said Jumman shamelessly. This made his aunt angry and she decided to take her case to the village panchayat.

4. The old lady went about meeting people explaining her case. Some sympathized with her, others laughed at her. A few others advised her to make it up with her nephew and his wife. At last she came to Algu Chowdhary and spoke to him. “You know, Chachi, Jumman is my best friend. How can I go against him?” Algu said. “But is it right, my son, to keep mum and not say what you consider just and fair?” pleaded the old lady. “Come to the panchayat and speak the truth,” she said. Algu did not reply, but her words kept ringing in his ears.


Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. How was the bond of friendship between Jumman and

Algu?2. On what condition did Jumman’s aunt transfer her

property to him?3. What did the aunt demand to set up a separate kitchen?4. What made the old lady angry?5. How did people react to the old lady when she went about

explaining her plight?6. Why did Algu Choudhary say that he could not go against


Read onPart II

5. The Panchayat was held under the old banyan tree. Jumman stood up and said, “The voice of the Panch is the voice of God. Let my aunt nominate the head Panch. I will abide by her de-cision.” “I nominate Algu Chowdhary as the Panch. The Panch knows neither enemy nor friend.” stated the old lady. “Fine,” replied Jumman hiding his joy over this unexpected piece of luck. “Chachi, you are aware of my friendship with Jumman,” said Algu. “Yes. But I also know that you will not kill your conscience for the sake of friendship. God lives in the heart of the Panch, and his voice is the voice of God.” And the old lady explained her case.

6. “What have you to say in your defence?” asked Algu to Jumman. Jumman narrated how his aunt transferred her property and how he promised her to look after her as long as she lived. “But of late there have been quarrels between my wife and aunt. Now my aunt is claiming a monthly allowance from me, which I can’t pay. That’s all I have to say,” he concluded his submission. After consulting others, Algu announced, “We are of the opinion that Jumman must pay his aunt a monthly allowance, or else the property goes back to her.”


Now, the friends were seldom seen together. The bond of friendship was broken. In fact, Jumman saw Algu as an enemy and wanted to take revenge.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. What was Jumman’s opinion about the Panch?2. Was the old lady right in nominating Algu as the Panch

knowing very well that he was Jumman’s best friend? If ‘yes’, why? If ‘no’ why?

3. What decision did Algu give after listening to Jumman and his aunt?

4. Why were Algu and Jumman seldom seen together after the Panchayat ?

Read on Part III

7. Days passed and, as ill luck would have it, Algu Chowdhary was in a tight spot. He sold one of his bullocks to Sanju Sahu, a cart driver of the village. The understanding was that Sahu would pay the price of the bullock in a month’s time. It so happened that the bullock sold by Algu, died within a month.

8. Several months after the death of the bullock, Algu reminded Sahu of the money he had not yet paid. “I can’t pay you a pen-ny for the wretched beast you sold me. He brought us nothing but ruin,” Sahu said angrily. Algu decided to take the case to the Panchayat. The Panchayat was held under the old banyan tree. Algu stood up and said, “The voice of the Panch is the voice of God. Let Sahu nominate the head Panch. I will abide by his decision.” Sahu saw his chance and proposed the name of Jum-man. Algu’s heart sank and he turned pale.

9. The moment Jumman became the head Panch, he realized his responsibility as a judge and the dignity of his office. Could he, seated in that high place, have his revenge now? He decided


not to allow his personal feelings to come in the way of speaking the truth and doing justice. Both Algu and Sahu presented their cases. Then Jumman stood up and announced, “It is our opinion that Sahu should pay Algu the price of the bullock. When Sahu bought the bullock it suffered from no disability or disease. The death of the bullock was unfortunate but Algu cannot be blamed for it.”

Algu could not contain his feelings. He said loudly, “Victory to the Panchayat. This is justice. God lives in the voice of the Panch.”

10. Soon after, Jumman came to Algu, embraced him and said, “Since the last Panchayat I had become your enemy. Today I realized what it meant to be a Panch. A Panch knows no friend or enemy but only justice. Let no one deviate from the path of justice and truth for friendship or enmity.” Algu was also in tears. His tears washed away all the dirt of misunderstanding between them.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. Who did Algu sell his bullock to?2. What happened to the bullock bought by Sahu from

Algu?3. Who did Sahu nominate as the head Panch?4. How did Algu feel hearing the judgement?

Glossary bond : strong connection swallow : tolerategrudged : gave unwillinglyobvious : clearallowance : an amount of money given regularlysympathize : feel sorry for somebodymum : quiet, silent


nominate : propose, suggest someone’s name abide by : acceptconscience : something that tells you whether you are right

or wrongdefence : something said in support claim : deemed as rightseldom : rarelyrevenge : something made to make somebody sufferannoyed : slightly angrywretched : extremely annoyingbeast : an animalruin : something that causes lossproposed : suggestedrealized : became aware ofdignity : respectful mannerdisability : physical weakness

C1. Think about the textAnswer the following questions by choosing the correct options :

1. ‘I am not wanted in your house’ a. Who is referred to as ‘I’? b. Where was the speaker? c. What did the speaker demand?

2. ‘How can I go against him?’ a. Who said it? b. Who does ‘him’ refer to? c. Why was he not ready to go against the person?


3. ‘I will abide by her decision’ a. Who agreed to abide by her decision? b. Where did the person make the statement? c. What decision is referred to here?

4. ‘He brought us nothing but ruin’ a. Who said this? b. Who was this said to? c. How did ‘he’ bring ruin to his owner? 5. ‘I had become your enemy’ a. Who had become the enemy of whom? b. When did the enmity start ? c. What caused the enmity between them?

C2. Think over the following questions and try to form your own answers :

1. What would you have done in case you were the Panch in place of Algu Chowdhary?

2. What values do you learn from the lesson? Write them down.

3. Do you like the way Jumman’s wife treated the old lady? If ‘ yes’, give reasons. If ‘no’, give reasons.

4. Assume yourself to be Jumman. Narrate how you would have looked after the old lady.

5. Discuss in groups how old people should be cared for. Write down the outcome of your discussion in four or five sentences.


V1. hom*ophones are words that have the same pronunciation but different meaning, spelling or origin.

Look at the following

tyre tire, sea see, hear here , there their.


Fill in the blanks using the correct word given in brackets : A hunter went to a forest in search of a game. ............., (Their, There), he saw a …… (deer, dear) behind a big tree. He aimed his arrow at it. But the alarmed animal started running.

The hunter ran for long but he could not sight the animal. He was greatly tired. He —— (new, knew) he could no more continue and needed — (some, sum) rest. He — (wrested, rested) under a shady tree and soon fell asleep. It was — (night, knight) when he woke up. He — (excepted, accepted) his failure in catching the animal and returned home empty handed.

Speak well : (Offering advice)S1. Imagine you are a doctor and your friend Ravi, a patient.

Ravi has come to you with some health problem. Read the dialogue between you and Ravi given below.

Ravi - Good evening doctor.Doctor - Good evening. Please be seated.Ravi - Doctor, I’m not well. Doctor - Please lie down on this table. (examines and checks

temperature) You’ve a severe cold. You’ve fever also.Ravi - Have I ? I’ve taken some medicines, but to no avail.Doctor - Who gave you those medicines?Ravi - The pharmacist.Doctor - Shouldn’t accept such medicines Ravi. It’s not

good. You should always consult a doctor before you start taking medicines. Don’t ever go for self medication.

Ravi - Sorry doctor. Henceforth I shall consult a doctor for my health - related problems.

Doctor - Here is the prescription. Don’t worry. You’ll be alright within a day or two.

Ravi - Thank you doctor.Doctor - You’re welcome.Practise the dialogue taking roles.


S2. A friend of yours has failed in the examination. He/She is feeling desperate. Speak to him/her to know his/her prob-lem and try to pacify him/her.

Use the following clues :Father ill … studies hampered… not his/ her mistake…

failure is not the end of everything… try again…. will come out with flying colours… ready to give help.

Language in UseRead the following sentences that appear in the lesson :

1. His wife grudged even the little food that the old lady needed for survival.

2. I know that you will not kill your conscience for the sake of friendship.

3. Jumman had an old aunt who had some property.

4. “My son, it is now obvious that I am not wanted in your house.”

5. Now my aunt is claiming a monthly allowance from me, which I can’t pay.

In all the above sentences there is an independent clause or a main clause and a dependent or subordinate clause.

Such sentences having one independent clause and at least one dependent or subordinate clause are called Complex sentences. A complex sentence is often used to make clear which ideas are most important, and which ideas are subordinate.

In the sentence (1) above,

“His wife grudged even the little food that the old lady needed for survival”, “His wife grudged even the little food” is an inde-pendent clause while “That the old lady needed” is a dependent clause which cannot stand without the independent clause.

Note: The main clause and the subordinate clause(s) in a complex sentence are introduced by using relative pronouns like


‘that’ , relative adverbs like ‘after’ or ‘wh’ words like ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘whatever’, ‘whenever’ as shown in the examples given below.

1. This is the house that Jack built. 2. I washed the dishes after I ate breakfast.3. Nathan ate pancakes while he read the news paper. 4. Whenever he sees a pretty sunset, Nathan wants

to visit the beach.5. He is the doctor who operated on my mother.6. This is the Ibrahim Rauza which was built by Ibra-

him Adilshah.

Task 1. Identify the main clause and the subordinate clause in each of the sentences taken from the lesson given above (page 98).

Task 2. Read the story carefully and pick out the complex sentences you come across. Classify the main clauses and subordinate clauses in the sentences you have picked out.

Read and respond The following is an excerpt from a popular English Daily. Read and understand.

Bill to curb punishment in schools on the cards

New Delhi- Demand for capitation fee, corporal punishment and insistence on purchase of books, uniform, stationery, or other materials from school premises or a particular shop, will be a punishable offence with imprisonment for a term extending to three years, according to a draft bill that seeks to curb malprac-tices in schools.

The legislation drafted as instructed by the Human Resource Development Ministry, also seeks to make a punishable offence, any offer or payment of capitation fee or donation, by way of consideration either in cash or kind or otherwise, for obtaining admission to any class in any school.


Task 1. Collect and read similar news paper excerpts that speak of injustice meted out to innocents or that tell you about justice done to the people who are just, righteous and honest.

Practise WritingYou have a lot of friends. One of them, say, is your best

friend. Write a paragraph noting the good qualities of your best friend. Use the clues given.

gentle, soft spoken, always helpful, honest, God fearing, clean , disciplined

Task 2. Writing dialogues Write the story in the form of a play. You may begin

the play as follows.Jumman - My dear friend Algu, I am going to visit my

relatives in the neighbouring village. It may not be possible for me to return home for two days. I request you to look after my family and cattle for two days.

Algu - Don’t worry Jumman. It is my pleasure being of some service to a good friend like you.

Jumman - ……...............................................................Algu - ……...............................................................

Suggested Reading 1. The Judgement Seat of Vikramaditya - Sister Nivedita

About the authorDhanapat Rai, better known by his pseudonym Munshi Premchand, was a famous Indian author and poet who ushered into modern Hindi and Urdu literature with his writings. The writer is mainly recognized for his creations that always contained a social message and raised a voice against the social evils prevailing in Indian society.

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Before You Read

Read the passage given below.

A child playing on the street was hit by a speeding vehicle. The child was lying in a pool of blood. It was shifted to a hos-pital. The doctors who examined the child told its parents that the child needed immediate blood transfusion and they must arrange for four bottles of blood immediately.

The eager parents offered good money for buying blood. Many young men did give blood but none accepted the money offered. They bluntly told the parents that blood could not be bought with money and that it should be donated by one person to another.

Make a list of things and obligations that cannot be bought with money.

Introduction Human life is based on certain values. Values still

govern our lives. Justice is one such value that ensures an exploitation-free life. But unfortunately, in the present day, justice has become a commodity of sale for some people. Though there are immoral attacks on justice, it has survived the test of time only because of its inherent strength.

Listen to the poem recited by the teacher.

Justice- Praveen Kumar

Justice begotten in exchange is no justice, For, exchange is trade, A distressing gain through loss; Justice is inherent right. 4


Though wrapped in black packs In dark hall of race for survival Like gold strains bound in mud Till exploited; 8

She is cool like ice And still like rock; No easy road to charm her soul While hardship makes her no more justice. 12

Why justice is shackled to greed and bribe? Why justice is fished out from popular mood? Lost in thick jungle of lightless night, Like rat, caught in the sack of death, 16

Like deer, caught in lion’s lair, She never reaches Self by herself. Justice with no heart for truth, Justice with no dash for right cause Is justice dead indeed. 21


begotten : got, earned

distressing gain : dishonestly obtained profit

exploited : unearthed

charm : attract, influence

shackled : chained

fished out : drew or pulled out from

sack : a large bag

lair : resting place

dash : (short )race


Understand the poemWhat is the poet trying to tell us? Read the following and find out the ideas of the poet. Work in groups. 1. When is justice reduced to trade?

2. What is the poet’s concern about justice expressed in the line, ‘A distressing gain through loss’?

3. What kind of a right is justice?

4. What kind of justice is dead, according to the poet?

5. How does the poet describe justice?

6. What present status of justice worries the poet?

Read and appreciate 1. The poet compares justice to ‘gold strains’, ‘ice’ and ‘rock’.


2. The poet says, ‘No easy road to charm her soul While hardship makes her no more justice.’

Do you find his opinion about justice contrasting? If so, why? If not why? Discuss in groups.

Figures of Speech Read the following lines : 1. ‘Though wrapped in black packs …..Like gold strains bound in mud...’

2. ‘She is cool like ice And still like rock’

3. ‘Like rat, caught in the sack of death, Like deer, caught in lion’s lair’

In all these lines the poet compares ‘justice’ directly, using ‘like’ to ‘ gold strains’, ‘ice’, ‘rock’, rat caught in the sack of death’, ‘deer caught in lion’s lair’. These are all Similes.


(A Simile is a figure of speech in which two different objects having at least one thing in common are compared directly using ‘like’, ‘so’, or ‘as’.)Study the following line : ‘She (justice) never reaches Self by herself.’

It is personification.(Personification is a figure of speech in which a non-living

thing or an abstract notion is attributed the qualities of a living being.)Know about the poet

Praveen Kumar, a bilingual poet, born in Mangaluru on June 29 of 1949 to Sri. R.D.Suvarna and Smt. B.Sarojini, has more than three decades of government service as a senior police officer. A poet of twenty-three published collections

and an author of five volumes on matters of governance and administration, he is a familiar face in Indian intellectual circuits. He presently lives in Bengaluru with his family.

Stemming from his varied academic background are the lively far-reaching interests that have impelled him to write in subjects as divers as matters of public interest and poetry, striking a perfect balance between the pursuance of vocation and avocation.

He has been a regular contributor to many national dailies, periodicals and journals. His articles have been extremely popular and often sensational by their innovative and unorthodox thoughts.

His published works include Policing for the New Age, Policing the Police, Indian Police and Inside India in prose; and Unknown Horizons, Portraits of Passion, Simply Yours, Love and Pride, Shobha Priya, Golden Wonder and Celestial Glow in poetry. His published works in Kannada are Divya Belaku, Bhavana, Priya Chaitra Tapasvini, Ananya Priya Lavanya, Priya Geethegalu and Tapasvini.

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UNIT - 6

ProseBefore you read :Read the following incident and answer the questions that follow :

Imagine that there is a pet animal named Soundarya. She is a pony very friendly with all the residents of the neighbourhood. But its master is very passive and unfriendly. An adolescent boy from the next street comes on his motorbike and runs over her accidentaly. Soundarya is wounded badly and she is unable to walk easily. She slowly walks into your compound, in a pool of blood. She looks at you, seeking your help.

1. Which is the animal that is referred to in the above incident?

a. a cat b. a dog c. a horse d. a rabbit

2. Why do you think that the pet has entered only your compound and not that of others?

3. How would you treat the wounded pet? Discuss this incident with your teacher and classmates.

Now read the play “The Noble Bishop” and appreciate the characters and the values.

The Noble Bishop- Victor Hugo

Scene - 1(The table is laid for dinner. Silver plates are set on the table.

The bishop is seated. His sister, Baptistine, is ready to serve. A convict enters.)

Convict : (hoarsely) See here! My name is Jean Valjean. I am a convict. I have been nineteen years in the galleys. Four days ago I was set free. I have walked for miles. I haven’t eaten anything for three


days. I have asked at every inn. All I was told was “Get out!” I want food. I’m starving. Give me food quickly.

Bishop : (calmly) Sister, put another plate on the table and put some sheets on the bed in the above. (Tremblingandstiflingascream, Baptistine goes to carry out the orders.)

Bishop : Friend, sit down and warm yourself. You may be tired. While we have supper, your bed will be made ready.

Convict : Do you understand? I am a convict. You call me ‘friend’ and don’t say, “Get out, dog!” as everybody else does. You must be a great soul. Thank You!

Bishop : You are suffering. You are hungry and thirsty. You mustn’t thank me. Sister! The lamp gives a very poor light. Bring the silver candlesticks and light them.

(Baptistine goes to the mantel, brings the silver candlesticks and lights them. She serves them supper – soup, cheese, mutton and large loaf of bread. The convict devours.)

Bishop : (to convict) You must have suffered a lot. Convict : My God, yes. That’s a long time ago. That was when

I was a man, now I’m not a man. I’m a number. Number 24601. And I’ve lived in hell for nineteen years.

Bishop : Tell me about it – about the hell you lived in. Convict : It’s so long ago. I forget. (dreamily) I lived with my

sister and her seven children. Then….(suddenly and very rapidly) yes, I remember! She was ill, we had no food, I could get no work. The children were


starving, so I stole some bread. I was sentenced to nineteen years in the galleys, (pauses )nineteen years in hell. (sobs) Then began my stay in hell. They chained me up like a wild animal; they lashed me like a hound. I fed on filth, for nineteen years, nineteen years! They took away my name. They took away my soul, and they gave me a devil in its place. I was a man once. I’m a beast now, and they made me what I am. Now, I’m free to starve.

Bishop : My son, you have suffered much, but there is hope for all. You can have rest now.

Convict : Hope! Hope! Ha! Ha! Ha! (laughs widely)Bishop : You have walked far. You are tired. Lie down and

sleep on the couch there. Good night, young man.

(Jean Valjean was so exhausted that he fell asleep immediately. Towards the middle of the night, he woke up. What awoke him was the bed. It was long, long ago since he had slept on a bed. Hestartedreflectingaboutthosenineteenyears.Hehadbeensentenced for stealing bread. He tried to escape many times. Each time he was caught, the court increased his sentence. And nineteen years had gone by. He had entered the galleys sobbing and shuddering. He came out hardened. Once he was free, he asked for work. But no one was willing to take him. The cathedral clock struck two. Jean Valjean thought about the silverware that was laid on the table for dinner. He rose to his feet, hesitated for a moment, listened and walked cautiously to the adjacent room. The rays of the moonlight shone on the Bishop’s face. He slept tranquilly.JeanValjeanstoodterrifiedatthisradiantfigure.

The moral world has no greater spectacle than this – a trou-bled and restless conscience on the verge of committing an evil deed, contemplating the sleep of a good man. Suddenly Jean Valjean went past the bed, straight to the cupboard. He saw the silverware, took it, crossed the room, jumped out of the window, ranacrossthegarden,leapedoverthewalllikeatiger,andfled.)


Scene - 2Baptistine: Good heavens! The silver is stolen. That man who

came last night has stolen it. (Runs to the alcove and comes back.) The man has gone!

Bishop : (with sadness) I have for a long time wrongfully withheld this silver. It belonged to the poor. Who was this man? A poor man evidently. It belonged to him. (There is a knock at the door.)

Bishop : Come in. (A servant and four policemen enter with the convict bound.)

Sergeant : Bishop, we have caught…

Bishop : (to Jean Valjean) Ah, there you are! I’m glad to see you my friend.

Sergeant : (puzzled) Friend?

Bishop : (to Jean Valjean But, I gave you the candlesticks also, which are silver like the rest. Why didn’t you take them along with the plates? (Jean Valjean looks at the Bishop, with an expression that no words could describe.)

Sergeant : Then, what this man said must be true? He said…

Bishop : He must have told you that the silverware was given to him by me, and that he had spent the night here. And you brought him here? It is all a mistake.

Sergeant : If that is so, we can let him go. (They release the convict and leave)

Bishop : My friend, before you go away, you can take these candlesticks. They are yours. Take them. (Gives him the silver candlesticks)

Bishop : Now, you may go in peace. By the way, when you come again, you need not come through the garden. You can always come in and go out by the front door. The doors of my house are never locked, day


or night. Jean Valjean, my brother, promise me that you would use this silver to become an honest man. Will you fulfil this promise?

Convict : Yes, I will. (sobs) I feel I am a man again and not a wild beast. (He leaves)

(Years rolled by, and Jean Valjean led the life of an honest man, remembering the Bishop’s words. He had sold all the silverware, except the candle-sticks. He kept them with him all his life, in memory of the good Bishop. He strove for the cause of the oppressed, downtrodden and destitute.)


Jean Valjean : to be pronounced as ‘Zhon Valzhon’convict : a person imprisoned for a crimegalley : ship usually rowed by prisonersalcove : a partly enclosed space in a roomstifling : suffocating mantel : a shelf above a fireplacedevour : eat up something greedilysentence (v) : punishment given by a court of lawsob : draw in breath noisily while cryinglash : strike with a whiphound : a type of dog used in huntingreflect : think deeplyshudder : shiver with cold, fear, etc.conscience : a person’s awareness of right and wrongcontemplate : consider something thoughtfully sergeant : police officerstrive : try very hardoppressed : be treated in an unfair waydowntrodden : be ruled or controlled tyrannicallydestitute : a person without money, food and shelter


Check your comprehensionC1. Work in pairs and answer the following questions in a

sentence or two each :

1. Who was Jean Valjean?

2. Who brought the silver candlesticks from the mantel?

3. What did the stranger steal from the Bishop’s place?

4. Why was Jean Valjean surprised at the Bishop’s be-haviour the next morning?

5. Why was Jean Valjean finally set free?

6. What did Jean Valjean promise the Bishop?

Think about the textC2. Discuss in groups and write answers for the following

questions :1. What do you think were Jean Valjean’s feelings when

he was called ‘friend’?

2. Why did Jean Valjean say that he was a beast?

3. What kind of a person was the Bishop?

4. Why did Jean Valjean hesitate to steal the silverware at first?

5. Was there any change in Jean Valjean’s attitude when he left the Bishop? What was the change?

C3. Discuss the following questions in small groups and present your answers to the class. Write a short para-graph on each question :

1. Describe the sufferings of Jean Valjean.

2. Explain how the Bishop reacted when Jean Valjean was brought before him by the police.


C4. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Write ‘T’ or ‘F’ in the following accordingly : 1. Jean Valjean was in the galleys only for a [ ] few years. 2. All the people were kind to Jean Valjean. [ ]3. The Bishop woke up in the middle of the night. [ ]4. Baptistine said that the silver was stolen. [ ]5. The silverware belonged to Jean Valjean. [ ]

VocabularyV1. Infer the meaning of the underlined words from the con-

text. You can choose the right word from those given in brackets : 1. Jean Valjean pleaded with the police and said that he

was not guilty. (requested, fought, argued)2. He fed on filth for nineteen years. (bread, dirty food,

fish) 3. The Bishop slept tranquilly. (fast, quickly, peacefully) 4. He stood terrified at this radiant figure. (frightening,

shining, dim) 5. The moral world has no greater spectacle than this.

(scenery, glasses, sight)

V2. Read the following sentence. She was quite pale after carrying a heavy pail of water.

In this sentence the words ‘pale’ and ‘pail’ are hom*ophones.

Task 1: Match the following words with their hom*ophones :

bread - knight through - seen right - bred night - write scene - threw


Task 2:

Find the hom*ophones for the following words. wait - ...................................

cell - ...................................

waist - ...................................

fare - ...................................

pray - ...................................

Task 3: Prepare a list of five words under each head with the letter ‘r’ in the beginning, in the middle and at the end. Pronounce them. Verify with the help of a dictionary.

‘r’ in the beginning ‘r’ in the middle ‘r’ at the end

Task 4:

Jean Valjean led the life of an honest man. In this sentence ‘h’ is silent when the word ‘honest’ is pronounced.

‘h’ is silent in the following words - honour, hour, rhyme, vehicle, exhibit.

Write a few more words in which the letter ‘h’ is silent.


Learn grammar through communication G1. Modals

You have studied about the use of modals in one of the earlier lessons.

Read the following sentences taken from the lesson. Say what function each modal serves in the sentence. Choose from the options given.

1. You may be tired. (granting permission, expressing possibility, offering)

2. We can let him go. (granting permission, expressing possibility, offering)

3. You can take these candlesticks. (granting permission, expressing possibility, offering)

4. You may go in peace. (granting permission, expressing possibility, offering)

Task 1: Read the following dialogue and underline the modals used. Patient : May I come in, Sir?Doctor : Yes, you may.Patient : I’ve been suffering from fever for the past two days.Doctor : Did you take any medicine?Patient : No, I didn’t. I’ve got a cold too.

(Doctor examines the patient.) Doctor : Your body temperature is 102° F. You must take

medicines for at least three days. Patient : Can I attend office? Doctor : You shouldn’t. You must take rest. Patient : What about the diet? Doctor : You should be on liquid diet. Patient : Should I see you again?


Doctor : You needn’t. But if the fever persists for more than three days, come and see me.

Patient : Sure. Doctor : Here is the prescription. Patient : Thank you, Sir. Doctor : You’re welcome.

G2. Types of sentences Here are a few sentences taken from the lesson.

1. I am a convict. 2. I’m a beast now, and they made me what I am. 3. While we have supper, your bed will be made ready. You’ve studied clauses earlier. A clause is a group of words

with a subject and a predicate. Clauses are of two types main clause and subordinate clause.

A main clause can give its meaning independently whereas a subordinate clause cannot, without the help of a main clause.

Sentence 1 has only one main clause. It is a simple sentence. Sentence 2 has two parts. They are: ‘I’m a beast now’ and ‘they made me what I am’. Both these parts are main clauses. They are joined by a co-ordinating conjunction ‘and’. It is a compound sentence. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses. Sentence 3 also has two parts. They are - ‘while we have supper’ and ‘your bed will be made ready’. ‘While we have supper’ depends on ‘your bed will be made ready’ to have its full meaning. ‘While we have supper’ is the subordinate clause and ‘your bed will be made ready’ is the main clause. It is a complex sentence. A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.


Task 1: Say whether the following sentences are simple, compound or complex sentences.

1. The rain stopped, so we decided to continue our jour-ney.

2. When I reached home, I was surprised to see Gopi waiting for me.

3. Ravi raised his voice and shouted at his friend. 4. The teacher advised Uma to study well. 5. As Sumathi is blind, the dog is leading her.

Task 2: Combine the following sentences using the conjunc-tions given in brackets.

1. He opened his box. He took out his new shirt. (and) 2. Mohan was sick. He stayed at home. (as) 3. Leela worked hard. She could not do well in the exam.

(but) 4. Sachin scored a century. The spectators applauded

him. (when) 5. Let us have supper. By then your bed will be made

ready. (while)

Task 3: Here is an interesting passage on ‘Sweet Smile’. Pick out simple, compound and complex sentences from the passage.

A child smiles not only because it is happy but also because it wants to communicate with loving elders. A cheerful smile brings instant attention. Any grown-up is instantly motivated to respond to a smiling child. When a child is hungry, it cries. It hears a few soothing words and stops crying. There is nothing as infectious as a warm smile, even among adults. Sometimes even serious faces break into a smile and even the smile of a stranger carries the universal message “I care”. Do you like to smile?

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Before you read

The following are a few words related to being kind or sym-pathetic to somebody. Find the meaning of these words from a dictionary.

Pity, forgive, condole, console, grant, amnesty, com-passion, mercy, lament, pardon, reprieve, solace, asylum.


(In this poem, Yussouf believes that everything belongs to God, not to individuals. He offers his home to a complete stranger. He also offers the stranger a horse and some gold. The stranger is overwhelmed by this kindness and admits that he killed Yus-souf’s son. Yussouf offers him some more gold instead of getting angry and thanks the stranger for allowing him to avenge his son’s death.

The poem emphasizes the qualities of kindness and gener-osity which lead us to happiness in life.)

Nobleness Enkindleth Nobleness

- James Russell Lowell

A stranger came one night to Yussouf’s tent,Saying, “Behold one outcast and in dread,Against whose life the bow of power is bent,Who flies, and hath not where to lay his head;I come to thee for shelter and for food,To Yussouf, called through all our tribes, “The Good.” 6


“The tent is mine,” said Yussouf, “but no moreThan it is God’s; come in, and be at peace;Freely shalt thou partake of all my storeAs I of His who buildeth over theseOur tents His glorious roof of night and day,And at whose door none ever yet heard Nay.” 12

So Yussouf entertained his guest that night,And, waking him ere day, said: “Here is gold,My swiftest horse is saddled for thy flight,Depart before the prying day grow bold.”As one lamp lights another, nor grows less,So nobleness enkindleth nobleness: 18

That inward light the stranger’s face made grand,Which shines from all self-conquest; kneeling low,He bowed his forehead upon Yussouf’s hand,Sobbing : “O Sheik, I cannot leave thee so;I will repay thee: all this thou hast doneUnto that Ibrahim who slew thy son!” 24

“Take thrice the gold,” said Yussouf, “for with theeInto the desert, never to return,My one black thought shall ride away from me :First-born, for whom by day and night I yearn,Balanced and just are all of God’s decrees;Thou art avenged, my first-born, sleep in peace!” 30

Note:Yussouf and Ibrahim correspond to the characters from the

Christian Bible as Joseph and Abraham. Both are important characters in the Bible as well as Quran.


Glossary behold : to see something

outcast : a person expelled from the community

dread : fear of something bad that might happen

hath : has

shalt : shall

thou : you

partake : share

nay : no or not

ere : before

prying : searching

enkindleth : kindles

hast : has

slew : killed someone violently

thee : you

yearn : long for

thou art : you are

avenge : take revenge

decree : judgement

Understand the poem 1. Who came to Yussouf’s tent one night?

2. What did he say?

3. Did he go to the tent for food and shelter?

4. Was Yussouf called ‘The Good’?

5. Was Yussouf kind to the stranger?

6. Did Yussouf believe in God?


7. What did Yussouf say, waking up the stranger?

8. What made the stranger’s face grand?

9. Who killed Yussouf’s son?

10. Did Yussouf get angry?

11. What did Yussouf say to Ibrahim?

12. Who did Yussouf yearn for day and night?

Read and appreciate

1. How has the poet described the stranger?

2. Pick out the lines which show Yussouf’s respect for God.

3. Explain: “As one lamp lights another, nor grows less, So nobleness enkindleth nobleness.”

4. Which line gives the idea that God is impartial?

5. What message does the poet give us through this poem?

6. Which line do you like the most and why?

7. Try to dramatize the poem. Use body language, facial expressions, and perform the poem.

Complete the summary of the poem by filling in the blanks. Choose the words from those given in brackets.

Note: The same word may be used more than once.

On a pleasant and quiet night, a desperate………………………goes to the tent of …… …………. He begs…………………….to protect him from the………………..who were after him ……………………readily grants what he wants. He……………the guest that night. Before the sun rises, he wakes him up and tells him to flee with


his swiftest…………………and some……………………..The guest’s heart moves and makes him………………….that he had killed Yussouf’s son. But, to his surprise, Yussouf gives him thrice the gold and tells him to go away before the enemy…………..him.

(confess, gold, Yussouf, stranger, horse, entertains, enemies, catches, shelter)

Know about the Poet

James Russell Lowell (1819 - 1891) was an Amer-ican poet. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a prophet. He also believed that poetry is linked with religion, nature and social reform. Hence, he used poetry for reform.

Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838 and went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School. He published his first collection of poetry in 1842. He was involved in the movement to abolish slavery in America and used poetry to express his anti-slavery views.

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UNIT - 7

ProseBefore you readRead the following lines.Blessed am I that I am born to this land

I had the luck to love her.

What care I if queenly treasure is not in her

Store but precious enough is for me

the living wealth of her love

Work in pairs /groups and answer the following questions orally:

1. Why does the poet think that he is blessed?

2. What is very precious for the poet?

3. Why does the poet value ‘living wealth’ more than ‘queenly treasure’? Discuss in groups.

Read onThe Will of Sacrifice

1. Bhagat Singh was born on September 27, 1907, in Khatkar Kalan, Punjab, in British In-dia. His grandfather Arjan Singh, father Kishan Singh and Uncle Ajit Singh, were all active in the freedom struggle.

2. Young Bhagat Singh came in contact with some well-known political leaders like Lala La-jpat Rai and Ras Bihari Bose while studying at the local D.A.V. School in Lahore, in 1916. In

response to Mahatma Gandhi’s call for non-cooperation against British rule in 1921, Bhagat Singh left his school


and joined the National School at Lahore. This school was a centre of revolutionary activities. Here he came in contact with revolutionaries such as Bhagwati Charan, Sukhdev and others. He became a member of the Hindustan Republican Association formed by the revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh. There he was initiated into their firebrand activities.

3. The revolutionaries were branded as terrorists by the British government. They believed that the British rule was unjust and oppressive. Therefore, it was legitimate on their part to use violence as a weapon to overthrow the foreigners. They used bombs and guns against the British and robbed their establishments. Their ideas differed from the Gandhian idea of a freedom movement based on non-violence or ahimsa.

4. Bhagat Singh is remembered today not only as a bold revolutionary figure but also as a great thinker. He was steeped in the best traditions of socialistic thought. That theory advocated collective or state ownership of the means of production, i.e., land, labour and capital. This is borne out in the numerous letters, pamphlets and articles that he wrote in the course of a short but turbulent life in prison. He wrote that revolution does not mean violence but “the spirit of freedom, the longing for a change for the better.”

5. The incident that brought a total change in the life of Bhagat Singh was the brutal attack by the police on veteran freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Rai at an anti-British procession. It resulted in the death of Lajpat Rai on November 17, 1928, in Lahore. Bhagat Singh determined to avenge Lajpat’s Rai’s death by shooting the British official responsible for the killing, Deputy Inspector General Scott. He shot down Assistant Superintendent Saunders instead, mistaking him for Scott. He threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall while the Assembly was in session. The bombs did not hurt anyone, but the noise they made was loud enough to wake


up an enslaved nation from a deep slumber.

6. For all the aggressive activities he was tried by the British courts in India and was awarded death sentence. Death did not deter Bhagat Singh. He kept the spark of freedom alive through his letters written from the jail cell. Thus, he proved that the value of a man lies not in what he is capable of receiving but in what he is capable of giving. Two of the letters that he wrote, one to his fellow freedom fighters and the other to his brother tell us what kind of a freedom fighter Shaheed Bhagat Singh was.

Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. Who actively participated in the freedom struggle from

Bhagat Singh’s family?2. Name the political leaders who were in contact with

Bhagat Singh when he was in DAV School in Lahore.3. How did Bhagat Singh respond to Gandhiji’s call?4. Where did Bhagat Singh come in contact with Bhagwati

Charan and Sukhdev?5. Why is Bhagat Singh remembered even today?6. Who did Bhagat Singh want to take revenge on? Why?7. According to Bhagat Singh, where does the value of

man lie?

Read onLetter – 1

Bhagat Singh’s last letter to Batukeshwar Dutt

Central Jail, Lahore, 21 March, 1921.

Dear brother,


7. The judgment has been delivered. I am condemned to death. In these cells, besides myself, there are many other prison-ers who are waiting to be hanged. The only prayer of these people is that somehow or other they must escape the noose. Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal. I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can sacrificethemselvesforthecauseofthenation.

8. I am condemned to death, but you are sentenced to transportation for life. You will live and, while living, you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can face every calamity. Death should notbeameanstoescapetheworldlydifficulties.Thoserevo-lutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows should live and show to the world that they can not only embrace gallows for the ideals but also bear the worst type of tortures in the dark dingy prison cells.

Jai Hind!s

Yours,Bhagat Singh

Check your comprehensionShare your responses1. What was the only prayer of the people who were

with Bhagat Singh?

2. What do you mean by the phrase ‘transportation for life’?

3. What kind of punishment does Bhagat Singh talk about?

4. What expectations did Bhagat Singh have from the people who escaped the gallows of death?


Read on

Letter – 2

Bhagat Singh’s Letter to the Second LCC Convicts

Lahore Jail, 22 March, 1931.


9. The desire to live is natural. It is in me also. I do not want to conceal it. But it is conditional. I don’t want to live as a prisoner or under restrictions. My name has become a symbol of Indian revolution.Theidealsandthesacrificesoftherevolutionaryparty have elevated me to a height beyond which I will never be able to rise if I live.

10. Today people do not know my weaknesses. If I escape gallows those weaknesses will come before them and the symbol of revolution will get tarnished or perhaps it may vanish altogether. On the other hand, if I mount the gallows boldly and with a smile, that will inspire Indian mothers and they will aspire that their children should also become Bhagat Singhs.Thusthenumberofpersonsreadytosacrificetheirlives for the freedom of our country will increase enormously. It will then become impossible for imperialism to face the tide of the revolution, and all their might and their satanic efforts will not be able to stop its onward march.

11. Yes, one thing pricks me even today. My heart nurtured some ambitions for doing something for humanity and for my coun-try.Ihavenotbeenabletofulfilevenone-thousandthpartofthoseambitions.IfIliveImightperhapsgetachancetofulfilthem. If ever it came to my mind that I should not die, it came from this end only. I am proud of myself these days and I am anxiouslywaitingforthefinaltest.Iwishthedaymaycomenearer soon.

Your comrade,Bhagat Singh


Check your comprehension

Share your responses1. What kind of life did Bhagat Singh desire to lead?2. Bhagat Singh’s name has become a symbol of… a. elevation b. relaxation c. revolution

d. reorientation 3. Bhagat Singh was never afraid of meeting… a. friends b. death c. enemies d. relatives4. Bhagat Singh is a model of… a. social service b. political wisdom c.oratory d.sacrifice5. ‘IfIliveImightperhapsgetachancetofulfilthem’. a.Whatwishesdidhewanttofulfil? b. Who is he telling this?6. Why did Bhagat Singh feel proud of himself?


British India : India under the British rule

well-known : famous, widely known

response : reply

revolutionary : involving violence

initiate : to make somebody a member of a particular group.

terrorists : persons who use violence to achive their aims.

legitimate : lawful, regular

violence : behaviour that is intended to hunt or kill somebody

thinker : a person who thinks in a particular way

steep in : to be deeply involved

socialist : one who advocates socialism


collective : common

pamphlets : leaflets

turbulent (adj) : violent situation

brutal : savage

veteran : one with long experience of service

enslaved : make one a slave

aggressive : attacking

shaheed : martyr

condemn : sentenced to punishment

noose : knot around the neck

anxious : troubled

fortunate : lucky

transportation : the act of sending criminals to a place that is far away as a form of punishment.

calamity : great misfortune

dingy : dark and dirty

comrades : mates or fellow associates

conceal : hide, keep secret

elevate : lift up, raise

symbol : sign

Will : death note

Think about the text

C1. Read the following questions, discuss and write :

1. How did Bhagat Singh participate in the freedom strug-gle?

2. What made the revolutionaries use guns and bombs against the British?


3. What are the means of production, according to Bhagat Singh?

4. How was Bhagat Singh able to keep the spark of free-dom struggle alive?

5. Why is Bhagat Singh remembered even today?

C 2. Read the following questions, discuss and write :

1. What were the incidents that brought changes in Bhagat Singh’s life?

2. How would you have tried Bhagat Singh if you were the judge in the British Court?

3. “The value of a man lies not in what he is capable of receiving, but in what he is capable of giving.” Discuss with your classmates.

4. Write a letter to your friend about your patriotic feeling, after reading the letters of Bhagat Singh.

VocabularyV1. Match the following adjectives in column ‘A’ with

suitable words in column ‘B’ to form appropriate word combinations.

e.g., collective effort A B

1. revolutionary a. effort2. collective b. toys3. turbulent c. struggle4. conditional d. floor5. freedom e. ideas6. dingy f. reflexes7. wet g. waters


V2. In the following sentences, substitute the underlined words with appropriate phrasal verbs given in brackets:

1. A committee has been set up to examine the problem.

2. They managed to extinguish the fire after ten hours.

3. Lots of people arrived for the music concert.

4. True friends support one another in times of need.

5. Whatever the temptation, he won’t yield to corruption.

[put out, turned up, stand by, give in, look into]

Speak Well – (Seeking Information)

Task 1. Read the following conversation. Take roles and practise.

Dialogue – 1

Prema : Why’re you late today, Sneha?

Sneha : Oh! I missed the bus and had to walk all the way.

Prema : Oh dear! Why don’t you buy a vehicle?

Sneha : Yes, I’m also thinking about the same. But I’ve to learn driving.

Prema : That’s right. Why don’t you join a driving school? Mayura Driving School is good one and it is near your house.

Sneha : Prema, how much do they charge to teach driving?

Prema : They charge Rs. 2000/- for ten hours. But Sneha, you should have a learning license before you could start learning.


Sneha : Learning license! Where shall I get it?

Prema : The Driving School will help you get it.

Sneha : How much do they charge for it?

Prema : May be about Rs. 500.

Sneha : Thank you for the information. I’ll go and meet them tomorrow.

Practise the dialogue changing the roles.

Dialogue – 2

Father : Children, we’re all going to see Hampi today.

Shekhar : Father, what’s there in Hampi?

Daughter : Shekhar, it was once the capital of Vijayanagar Kingdom.

Father : Yes, dear, you’re right.

Shekhar : Is there anything to see?

Father : Yes, you can visit Virupaksha Temple, Vijaya Vittala Temple, Stone Chariot, Hazara Rama Temple, Ugra Narasimha Temple and many more ruins of Vijayanagar Kingdom.

Shekhar : Are they still in good condition?

Father : Yes, some of them. The UNESCO is taking care of it. The UNESCO has recognized it as a Heritage Site.

Shekhar : Ok. Let’s go then father. I’m eager to see them.

Practise the dialogue changing the roles.


Dialogue – 3

Tourist : Excuse me, how far is the railway station from here?

Giridhar : It’s about three kilometres.

Tourist : Can I get a bus to the station?

Giridhar : Yes, you can. But you’ve got to wait for an hour for the next bus.

Tourist : Oh, dear! How long will it take me to walk to the station?

Giridhar : It takes at least one and a half hours if you walk normally.

Tourist : Then it is better to wait for the bus. Thank you.


1. Imagine you are Rajesh, gone to the grocery shop to buy the things for the preparation of bisibele bath. Have a simple and interesting conversation with the shop keeper which motivates others to listen.

2. Have a conversation with your loving sister about the plants you have grown in your kitchen garden.

3. Your parents are refusing to send you for your school trip. Write a dialogue on how you convince them.


Practise Writing – Group work

Write a dialogue based on any ONE of the above situ-ations.

Present your dialogue to the class.

Try to enact the dialogue.


Read the statement and put a tick mark in the appropriate box.


Statement Yes No To some extent

1. I was able to write a dialogue with minimum 5-6 exchanges.

2. I have included appropriate questions and responses in my dialogue

3. I have used contracted forms in the dialogue

4. I can read the dialogue aloud with proper pronunciation, stress and intonation

` ` `

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

- Nelson Mandela



Before you read

A. Look at the pictures below. What do they suggest? Share your responses in groups or pairs.

B. Read the following poem. What is its theme? What message does it convey? As you read and reread you will draw some meanings from it. Try to share your thoughts and feelings with others in your group.

Flowers of India - Mon Awalla

WearetheflowersofIndia,Blooming all the way…

From Tokyo to Philadelphia.

We spread our fragrance,Of peace and harmony,

Help people when they face pain and agony.

We turn into fruits,when we grow-up,

Having very rich culture to show-up.


Our heritage and customs are age old,Shining across the globe,

Like a gold.

YeswearetheflowersofIndia,Blooming all the way…

You have read the poem ‘The Flowers of India’. Here is a poem written during the struggle for Indian Independence.


The inspiration to fight for freedom came from different sources and in varied forms. The well known Tamil poet Subramanya Bharathi used verse as his medium to awaken the slumbering people of India. He inspired the people to overthrow the foreign rule and reform the country so that it could become an India which every Indian could be proud of. Here is a poem from the pen of this great patriot and idealist.

Listen to the poem read or recited by the teacher.

The Song of Freedom


- C. Subramanya Bharathi

(Translation – Prema Nandakumar)

This is the hourOf song and dance,For blissful freedomIs ours at last. 4


Gone are those days of caste-born pride.Gone is the foreigner’s might:Gone is passive subservienceGone is the trickster’s sway. 8

Freedom is our universal speech,Equality the experienced grace;We’ll blow the conch of victory And publish the truth to all. 12

We see that all are equal born;Now lie and deceit are dead;Only the good men are great – Ruin has seized and wicked. 16

Honour to the ploughman and the worker!Shame to the glutton and the rake!We’ll not water the wastelands,Nor sweat for the idler’s weal! 20

We’ve learnt that this is our own land,It will be forever ours;No nation shall enslave us again;We’ll prosper serving God, our sole Lord. 24


blissful : extremely happy and peaceful

subservience : a state in which you do whatever someone else wants you to do

trickster’s sway : power or influence of one who deceives or cheats people


conch (±ÀAR) : the shell of a sea animal which produces a sound when you blow into it

deceit : behaviour that is deliberately intended to mislead people

glutton : one who eats too much in a greedy way

rake : one who behaves in an immoral way, gambling, drinking, etc.

weal : well-being (Old English)

enslave : make into a slave

sole : exclusive, only

Understand the poem

1. Fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets to make it more meaningful.

In this poem, the poet celebrates the _________________of our nation. It is celebrated with songs and _____________. Indians fought for the freedom unitedly leaving____________________to anyone. We are free from the tricks any_____________________could play to divide us. [No chance, freedom, trickster, dance]

2. This poem celebrates India’s freedom from the British rule.

a. Quote the lines that refer to freedom.

b. What, according to the poet, is freedom?

c. How does he want to celebrate it?

3. What does the poet mean by ‘the universal speech’ and ‘experienced grace’?

4. This poem is not just a description of free India. It is also a description of a glorious India. Do you agree with


the statement? If so, which are the undesirable elements that the poet desires to free ourselves from?

5. What differences do you see between ‘the India’ visualized by the poet and the present one?

Read and appreciate1. What images or pictures can you visualize when you

read the following lines? You can draw or mime or dramatize the action suggested in these lines.

a. This is the hour of song and dance.

b. We’ll blow the conch of victory.

c. Now lie and deceit are dead.

d. Honour to the ploughman and the worker.

2. Look at stanza two. Which words are repeated? What effect does this repetition have on the reader?

Know about the authorChinnaswami Subramanya Bharathi was a writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and social reformer from Tamil Nadu. Popularly known as Mahakavi Bharathiyar, he is a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry.

“He who writes poetry is not a poet. He whose poetry has become his life, and who

has made his life his poetry – it is he who is a poet.” Subramanya Bharathi is the real poet who fulfils this definition.

Suggested reading1. ‘Where the Mind is Without Fear’ – Rabindranath Tagore

2. ‘To India My Native Land’ – Henry Louis Vivian Derozio


Read and enjoy

Where the Mind is Without Fear

- Rabindranath Tagore

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high

Where knowledge is free

Where the world has not been broken up into fragments

By narrow domestic walls

Where words come out from the depth of truth

Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection

Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way

Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit

Where the mind is led forward by thee

Into ever-widening thought and action

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.

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“Earth and sky, woods and fields, lakes and rivers, the mountain and the sea, are excellent schoolmasters, and teach some of us more than we can ever learn from books.”

- John Lubbock


UNIT - 8

ProseBefore you readThe passage given below, which is incomplete, is an extract from Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s autobiography. Listen to your teacher and complete the passage.

I was born into a middle-class _________ family in the island town of Rameswaram in the erstwhile _________state. My _________ Jainulabdeen, had neither much formal education nor much ________; despite these disadvantages, he possessed great innate wisdom and a true generosity of spirit. He had an ideal helpmate in my _______, Ashiamma. I do not recall the exact number of people she ______ every day, but I am quite certain that far more _____________ are with us than all the __________of our own family put together.

To My Countrymen

- Dr A.P.J. Abdul KalamRead on

The following is an extract from Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s book ‘Ignited Minds’. Let us read the extract and understand his message to the youth of India.

All through this book I have spoken about the power of imagination. It lies at the heart of the creative process and is the very substance of life, allied as it is to the power to attract to us what we most desire. This power makes all the differ-ence between the winners and the losers. I would like to see in twenty years a literate and poverty-free India. I dream of an India governed by noble leaders. I dream of a system where the work


of scientists and technologists is focussed on specific missions driven by goals relevant to the common man. How is this dream to be made real?

Dear learner, how can Dr Abdul Kalam’s dream be realized?

We need to realize that missions are always bigger than organizations, just as organizations are always bigger than the individuals who run them. Missions need effort and the mind provides the purpose. Seen this way, consider, which department or ministry will take man to Mars and build a habitat there? Can 200,000 MW of electric power be generated by isolated efforts in thermal, hydroelectric, nuclear and non-conventional sectors without an integrated effort? Can the second green revolution happen without agricultural scientists, biotechnologists and irrigation experts working together? Without proper diagnostic facilities in clinics and affordable drugs reaching our masses, our biotechnology laboratories and medical councils will continue to perpetuate each others’ survival without serving the purpose of their existence: to set in place the most advanced medical facili-ties and make these available to the people at reasonable prices.

I have dwelt upon my own experiences that made me aware of the energy field which is created by a vision. It is a power that arises from deep within you. This power is the basis for the movement towards excellence we saw at the time of indepen-dence. I have been touched by this power on many occasions while facing a challenge. Pre-independence India reverberated with it. It helped us humble a mighty empire.

Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata brought the steel industry to India even though the British rulers were not favourably dis-posed to the idea. Acharya P. C. Ray nurtured the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. We saw the birth of many great insti-tutions like the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, started by J. N. Tata, the Banaras Hindu University established by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, and Aligarh Muslim University set up


by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Some of the progressive maharajas too set up universities, as in Baroda. There are many examples. In all these cases, the motivation was to see India come up in the world, to demonstrate that ‘India can do it’.

Are we in a position to continue that work, revive that spirit of enterprise? Shall we ever see cars designed and manufactured in India dotting the roads in Frankfurt or Seoul? Or Indian sat-ellite launch vehicles place communication, weather and remote sensing satellites of other nations in orbit? Or see India build power stations for the U.S.A. Japan and China? The possibility will remain remote if we stay with the present trend of low aim.

Today we are witnessing good progress in the software sector but almost all of the hardware is imported. Can we rise higher on the value scale there? Can India design an operating system that will become a household name in the world of computers? Our exports consist to a large extent of low value raw material such as iron ore and alumina. Can we not convert these into a wide range of products that find an international market? We have hundreds of defence production industries but why does India not manufacture and market the main battle tank, missiles, aircrafts, guns and other defence equipment? We have the most important core competence in the form of our multifaceted man-power and basic infrastructure. What is it that we don’t have?

Learners, what are your responses to Dr Kalam’s question: What is it that we don’t have?

Let us read on to know Dr Kalam’s views on this…

Let us think what prevents us from undertaking such chal-lenges. We have to analyse how we can give a new dimension to our style of functioning, by cutting across the individual interests of various ministries and even industries and institutions, to fol-low an integrated action plan. The motive force has to be love for the country. We need a vision that is shared by the entire nation.


In the drive for development, some states are faring better than others in the country. Bright young entrepreneurs have energized the national technology scene. Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi and Hyderabad are hubs of business activities. But even though the IT sector is a very visible area of success and has brought in some capital investment in terms of overall development, this is not enough. Even if you take up the IT area as a mission, manpower is the most important need. Those living away from the cities must also have access to a good education to join the talent pool. And this should happen fast.

My visits to the northeastern states – Tripura and Assam – and to Jharkhand showed me our untapped potential. Tripura’s economy rests on forest products, including bamboo cultivation. It is rich in mineral wealth, as also in natural gas. But the trans-port facilities are in bad shape. It is difficult to travel, interact and organize business. There is isolation. In Jharkhand too there is mineral wealth besides its resources in terms of forest products and handicrafts, all of which need to be developed. In Assam, there is no shortage of resources and the state has good educational infrastructure. All the ingredients required for a de-veloped economy are there but there is insurgency and unrest among people. A focussed mission will integrate people.

States such as Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Karnataka have made me realize that much can be achieved once efforts are made to channel development funds for improvement in areas such as education and health. These and other states can become good examples of economic development.

Our intellectual forums, political platforms, academic institutions and chambers of commerce are full of discussion and debate. There is noise, a lot of it in fact. There are endless debates, arguments, hypotheses, theories, and yet there is little progress. However, the theme of a developed India is not discussed in boardrooms and technology conferences. I want all of us – in-stitutions, political parties, industries, communities, families,


individuals – at every level to take full responsibility for what is good or bad in our situation, for what we possess and that which we do not. This would mean that we stop blaming others for the circ*mstances we find ourselves in. Taking responsibility also means willingness to exercise our abilities to the fullest. This will make us worthy of enjoying the benefits that come with effort.

Students should get ready to transform India into a devel-oped nation. Ignite your minds and think big.

A teacher once said, “Give me a five-year old child. After seven years, no God or Devil will be able to change the child. Will all teachers be such gurus?”

Glossaryhabitat : a place to liveaffordable : having enough money to buy or pay for some-

thingperpetuate : continue to exist for a long timemission : an important assignmentdwell upon : think or talk about somethingdisposed to : want to do something, inclined

nurture : help a plan or idea to develop


revive : make something strong again

demonstrate : show

remote : far away, not likely

core : the most important

multifaceted : having many parts or sides

cut across : if a problem or feeling cuts across different groups of people, they are all affected by it

access : use something

channel (v) : direct something such as money or energy to-wards a particular purpose

dot : if an area is dotted with things, there are a lot of them there

untapped : not yet used

potential : to have a natural ability or quality

ingredient : a quality you need to achieve something

insurgency : rebellion, an attempt by a group of people to take control of their government using force and violence

unrest : protest or violent behaviour

intellectual : an intelligent well-educated person

hypothesis : an idea that is not yet proved (plural – hypotheses)

enterprise : a project that is difficult or requires effort

ignite : activate, burn

the heart of : the most important part of

substance of : the main part of

household name : a name that has become very well known


Check your Understanding:

(A) Answer the following questions based on your reading of the passage :

1. What, according to Dr Kalam, is important in life to become a winner?

2. Which is bigger, the individual or the organization?

3. What can be achieved by working together?

4. It helped us humble a mighty empire. Who does the phrase ‘mighty empire’ refer to?

5. What will happen if we have a low aim?

6. What is Dr. Kalam’s view on the good progress we have made in the software sector?

7. Mention the states that are faring better than others in the country.

8. Which state is rich in mineral wealth and natural gas?

9. Where do you see insurgency and unrest among people?

10. Match the following :

1. Acharya P. C. Ray a Banaras Hindu University

2. J.N. Tata b Aligarh Muslim University

3. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan c Chemical and pharmaceutical industries

4. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

d Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru


Think about the Text

(B) Discuss the following questions in small groups, present your answers orally and then write them down in your notebook.

1. What do people expect from biotechnology labs and medical councils?

2. What is Dr. Abdul Kalam’s vision of India in 2020?

3. How did great people such as J.N. Tata, Sir Syed Ahamed Khan, etc. help India come up in the world?

4. As mentioned in the lesson, what is it that we have? What is it that we don’t have?

5. What is his message to teachers and students?

6. What is lacking in the discussions and debates that take place in intellectual forums, political platforms and academic institutions?

Speak Well

1. Speech:

Find a partner and speak on the following topic for three minutes.

‘The country of my dreams’.

Change your partner and speak on the same topic for two minutes.

Change your partner again and speak on the same topic for one minute.

2. Interview : Do you know that Dr. Abdul Kalam has met and interacted with thousands of high school students across the country? If Dr Abdul Kalam had visited your school, what


questions would you have asked him? Write down three to four questions you would have liked to ask him. Conduct an inter-view. Let one person in your class play the role of Dr. Kalam and answer your questions.

3. Read a part of an interview with Dr. Kalam that appeared in the DNA newspaper.

Interviewer: What are your favourite leisure-time activities? Kalam: Books are my favourite friends, and I consider my home library, with many thousand books, to be my greatest wealth. Every new book, based on some new idea inspires me and gives me a new thought to ponder over. I enjoy reading and writing poetry. I like music, which heals the mind; I especially like Car-natic and Hindustani Classical music.

Interviewer: You inspire many, but who’s it that you are inspired by?

Kalam: My inspiration is my science teacher in school, Shri

Sivasubramania Iyer, who taught me when I was in 8th standard at the age of 13.

Interviewer: Any message for the youth?

Kalam: First, be unique. Second, remember that the 21st cen-tury India requires you to ‘work with integrity and succeed with integrity’. Third, the spirit of ‘What Can I Give’ shall replace the attitude of ‘What Can I Take’ — which is what causes greed, leading to problems like corruption, environmental degradation and moral turpitude.

Now, take the roles of the Interviewer and that of Dr Kalam and practise asking and answering questions.

Study the Words:1. Phrasal verbs

In the sentence ‘Sir Syed Ahmad Khan set up Aligarh Muslim


University’, ‘set up’ is a phrasal verb. ‘Set up’ means ‘to build something’. A phrasal verb is a verb combined with an adverb or a preposition to give a new meaning.

When ‘set’ is used with other prepositions/adverbs, it conveys different meanings. Read the following phrasal verbs and their meanings:

about (To begin or start: set about solving the problem)

down (to put in writing)

aside (to reserve for a special purpose)

in (to begin to happen)

forth (to express in words)

out (start a journey)

off (to cause to explode)


Refer to a dictionary and make sentences using the above phrasal verbs.

2. Idioms

An idiom is an expression consisting of a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words.


The following are a few idioms:set fire toTo cause to ignite and burn.

set foot inTo enter

set (one’s) heart onTo be determined to do something

set on fireTo cause to become excited

set sail To begin a voyage on water

set (someone) straightTo correct (someone) by providing full and accurate anformation

set up shopTo establish one’s business operations

3. Collocations(A) Words often used together are called collocations. For exam-ple, the word ‘hearty’ is often used with ‘congratulations’ and we say ‘Hearty congratulations!’ In the following table, match the words that collocate and write them down :

noble responsibilitymake satellitesmanufacture challengeslaunch powergenerate carsface nationtake leadersdeveloped efforts


(B) There are some words in Box A and some prepositions in Box B. Which prepositions can be used with which words? Write the word combinations.

dreamconvertconsistbasiswillingspeakgive birthworthyhave access

Box A Box B


Refer to a dictionary and construct meaningful sentences using the word combinations above.

4. Conjunctions

Why is the word ‘and’ used in the sentence ‘Missions need effort and the mind provides the purpose’?

The word ‘and’ is used to join two parts of a sentence. It is called a conjunction. We use ‘and’ to add extra information. Can you make a list of all such conjunctions used in the lesson?

A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. Read the conjunctions and their functions given in the table below:


Conjunction Why it is used (function)

Example sentence

andfurthermorein additionbesidestoo

to add something Amol spent his summer vacation visiting places, reading books and attending swimming classes.

butyethoweverwhilewhereas even thoughalthough

to show contrast He always played well but he never got any prize.


to show choice You can choose this one or that one.


to give reason He felt sad because he lost his pen.

ifunlessas long as

condition You can’t play outside if it’s raining.


place I live in a place where there are many restaurants.

soso that

result I am not feeling well, so I can’t attend the class.

untilwhilewhenas soon as

time You can go home as soon as you finish the work.


QuizThe conjunctions used in the following sentences are wrong. Replace them with the most appropriate ones. Choose from the options given in brackets.

1. I will go to bed now, or my homework is not done. (if, and, but)

2. Would you like to have tea and coffee? (but, or, and)

3. My sister wants both a bicycle although a book for her birthday. (and, in addition to, besides)

4. Ramya is very tall so that Parveen is very short. (if, until, while)

5. I came early until I can talk to you personally. (so that, as if, in spite of)

6. Whoever she calls me, I feel happy. (whichever, whenever, wherever)

7. Although the class starts, you will not be able to play. (once, whereas, while)

8. Since I had seen that movie three times, I watched it again. (because, until, although)

Language in UseRead the sentence given below:‘Those living away from the cities must also have access to a good education to join the talent pool.’

The word ‘must’ indicates necessity. It is called a ‘modal’. There are a few such modals used in the lesson. Can you list them?

The following are some examples:1. should2. have to

3. need to


Read some of the modals and their meanings given below:

QuizChoose appropriate modals from the table above and com-plete the sentences.

1. _________ you speak Chinese? No, ________.2. I _________ study well for the exam.3. _________I borrow your pen?4. We _________watch TV so much.5. We _________ buy that bag. It’s expensive.6. You ________ come to school in time.7. I ________ work hard to complete the project.

8. You ______ speak politely to others.

Modals Meaning Example sentencemay permission May I come in, Sir? may might

probability I may go to Mysuru tomorrow. He might have repaired the fridge.

can could



Can I speak to the Principal, please? The teacher said I could join the group.

I can speak four languages. I couldn’t solve the problem.

should must have to need to

necessity I must meet my parents now.


Modals are also used for different communicative functions. They are used for requesting, for seeking permission, for invit-ing, for advising, etc. The following is a list of functions and the corresponding modals.

Requesting Can you please carry this bag? Will you open the book at page 23 please ?

Asking for permission May I go out now?Can I sit here?

Advising You should consult the doctor immediately.

Inviting Shall we have a cup of coffee? Would you like to join us?

Please note that we have not listed all the modals here. Only a few have been discussed in this lesson; other modals will be discussed in other lessons and also next year.

Let us Write

Write down a few things that you know about Dr Abdul Kalam.

Discuss these points with your friends in small groups.

Write a short biography/profile of Dr Abdul Kalam in your group.

Present the biography to the whole class and seek comments/suggestions from others/your teacher.

Read the points given below, add them to the biography you have written and prepare a fair copy.

Abdul Kalam – born 15 October 1931 – one of India’s most distinguished scientists – guided a number of technology projects and missions –popularly known as ‘Missile Man of India’ developed India’s first satellite launch vehicle, the SLV-3 – held


various positions in ISRO and DRDO – became Principal Adviser to Government of India – received honorary doctorates from thirty universities and the country’s three highest civilian honours – Padma Bhushan (1981), Padma Vibhushan (1990) and Bharat Ratna (1997) – served as eleventh President of India – author of several books: ‘Wings of Fire’ (autobiography), ‘India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium’, ‘Target 3Billion’, etc.

Refer to some magazines/websites, collect some more information about Dr Kalam and prepare a final copy. Handover the final copy of the biography to your teacher.

Project Work

Collect the biographies of famous personalities and present them in the class.

Listening Text

I was born into a middle-class Tamil family in the island town of Rameswaram in the erstwhile Madras state. My father Jainu-labdeen, had neither much formal education nor much wealth; despite these disadvantages, he possessed great innate wisdom and a true generosity of spirit. He had an ideal helpmate in my mother, Ashiamma. I do not recall the exact number of people she fed every day, but I am quite certain that far more outsid-ers were with us than all the members of our own family put together.

` ` `


POETRYBefore You Read :

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Four friends – Raju , Akbar , John and Mohan – are looking sad. Each one of them has lost something. Raju lost his cricket bat which he was very fond of. Akbar had a very good story book and he lost it when, by mistake, it fell into a pond. John lost his collection of rare stamps which he had collected over a few years. Mohan lost his mother, who died of a massive heart attack.

1) Whose loss , do you think, is the greatest?

2) Why do you think the loss of other things is not that im-portant?

3) Which of the losses can be compensated and which cannot be?


Introduction: Youth is the best period of human life. It is the sweetest phase of life. It fills a person with dreams. One should make the best use of one’s youth because when it is gone, much of one’s strength is gone.

Your teacher will recite the poem. Listen to it.

It Never Comes Again

(Memorization)- Richard Henry Stoddard

There are gains for all our losses, There are balms for all our pain,But when youth , the dream , departs, It takes something from our hearts, And it never comes again. 5


We are stronger, and are better,Under manhood’s sterner reign;Still we feel that something sweetFollowed youth, with flying feet,And will never come again. 10

Something beautiful is vanished,And we sigh for it in vain;We behold it everywhere,On the earth, and in the air,But it never comes again. 15

Glossarybalms : something that helps you to relax

sterner : stronger

reign : period of rule

vanished : disappeared

sigh : a long deep breath showing disappointment

in vain : without success

behold : look at or see

Understand the poem:

The poem has a wonderful message. Read it again and dis-cuss your views on the following questions with your partners.

1. What happens when youth departs?

2. How does a person feel when he is youthful?

3. The poet says, “We sigh in vain.” Why?

4. Where does a person look for youth, after it is gone?

5. Why does the poet compare losses and gains with youth?

6. What is the message of the poem?


Read and Appreciate:

A) 1. Read the following lines that appear in the second stanza of the poem :

“Still we feel that something sweet

Followed youth, with flying feet,

And will never come again.”

The poet describes youth as ‘something sweet’. Do you agree with him? Why? Discuss in groups.

2. The poet says, ‘There are gains for all our losses’. Do you agree with this? Give reasons.

3. Which line/s in the poem do you like the most? Why? Tell your friends.

4. Can you think of some proverbs/quotations related to the theme of the poem?

e.g. Time and tide wait for none.

B) Figures of Speech

1. Metaphor

Look at the following line taken from the poem :

“But when youth , the dream, departs….”

The poet in this line brings about an indirect comparison between ‘youth’ and ‘dream’. The comparison is implied. It is a Metaphor.

Metaphor is a figure of speech in which two different objects having at least one thing in common are compared. But the comparison is indirect or implied.

eg: Tippu Sultan was the tiger of Mysuru.


2. Personification

Read the following line :

“It takes something from our hearts,

And it never comes again.”

In this line the poet has attributed the qualities of living beings to an abstract notion ( youth). ‘It’ ( youth) is personified. It is Personification.

Personification is a figure of speech in which a non-living object or an abstract notion is treated as having life.

Pick out other examples of personification that appear in the poem.

Collect some examples for metaphor and personification. Take the help of your teacher if necessary .

C) Rhyming words :

Make a list of rhyming words from the poem.

e.g: pain reign.

Add a few rhyming words to the following.

sweet, air, heart, vanish.

About the poet

Richard Henry Stoddard (1825-1903) was an American critic and poet. He became a black-smith and later an iron moulder reading a lot of poetry at the same time. In 1849 he gave up his industrial trades and began to write for a living.

His poetical work is sincere, original and marked by delicate fancy, and felicity of form; and his songs have given him a high and permanent

place among American lyric poets.


Further Reading:

Father William- Lewis Carroll

‘You are old, Father William,‘the young man said,‘And your hair has become very white;And yet you incessantly stand on your headDo you think, at your age, it is right?’ 4

‘In my youth,’ Father William replied to his son,‘I feared it might injure the brain,But , now that I’m perfectly sure I have none,Why, I do it again and again.’ 8

‘You are old,’ said the youth, ‘and your jaws are too weakFor anything tougher than suet ;Yet you finished the goose , with the bones and the beakPray , how did you manage to do it?’ 12

‘In my youth,’ said his father, ‘I took to the law,And argued each case with my wife;And the muscular strength which it gave to my jawHas lasted the rest of my life.’ 16

` ` `


Supplementary Reading

Aruna Asaf Ali - The Great Patriot

- EditedIntroduction:

(It is common knowledge that the British Empire spread all over the globe in the past. Our dear motherland was a part of it. Reeling under the tyranny of the oppressors, she found solace in the efforts of the freedom fighters that willingly shed their last drop of blood to redeem her from the shackles of bondage.)

One such luminary was Aruna Asaf Ali, the famous freedom fighter and the champion of the cause of women.

Read the following biography of this valiant woman whose remarkable achievement is etched in our history.

Known as the “Grand Old lady of the Independence movement” Aruna Asaf Ali was a fiery leader who plunged headlong into politics at a time when the freedom struggle was raging and the youth were laying down their lives for the country’s independence.

Born into an orthodox Hindu Bengali family in 1909 at Kalka in Haryana, Aruna broke conventions at the age of 19, to marry Asaf Ali, a prominent figure in the freedom struggle and twenty years her senior. Her marriage brought her face to face with the freedom struggle and social service which she pursued throughout her life.

Aruna Asaf Ali’s first major political involvement was during the Salt Satyagraha when she addressed public meetings and led processions. She was prosecuted in Delhi and on her refusal to furnish security for good behaviour, was sentenced to one year imprisonment. A few months later, when most political prisoners were being released, she was not released until a public agitation was launched in her support.


Aruna Asaf Ali

In 1932, she was again arrested and put in the Delhi jail where she went on a hunger strike to protest against the callous treatment of political prisoners. Her demands were conceded, but she was transferred to Ambala jail, where she was kept in solitary confinement. After her release, she stayed away from the movement for ten years.

Asaf Ali

Something significant happened in

1942. She attended the Bombay Congress Session along with her husband during which the Quit India resolution was passed on 8 August. The Committee had planned the hoisting of the tricolour at Gowalia Tank Maidan but the British got wind of the plan and arrested the top leaders including Gandhiji a few hours before the event. What followed is best described in her own words.

“My husband and I were not in the least surprised, when in the early hours of August 9th, the police knocked on the door of the flat where we were staying. When they announced Asaf Saheb’s arrest, I asked, “What about me”?

“There’s no warrant for you, ma’am”, I was told. I persuaded the British sergeant who had come in a taxi with

a couple of policemen to let me accompany them to the railway station to see off my husband. Dawn was about to break and there was a cordon around Victoria Terminus to keep crowds at bay. As I walked along the platform, I saw Maulana Azad sitting at a window in a compartment of the special train and stopped to talk to him. As Congress President, he was to unfurl the tricolour at a public gathering at Gowalia Tank Maidan at 8 a.m. I made up my mind on an impulse, “I am going there”.


This decision to stand in for Maulana Azad was the beginning of a chapter of heroism and unrest in the life of Aruna Asaf Ali. Her narrative proceeds.

“Bhulabhai Desai’s son, Dhirubai had come to the railway station and he drove me in his car to the maidan. The meeting was declared illegal under Section 144. A white-skinned sergeant gave two minutes for the crowd to disperse. I quickly scrambled up to the dais, announced to the people the arrest of the leaders, and pulled the cord to hoist the national flag. Hardly had the flag been unfurled, when the police lobbed tear gas shells into the crowd. The men and women ran helter-skelter with tears streaming down their cheeks. The experience of that morning made me decide that I would not again tamely enter jail by offering satyagraha”.

Aruna’s act of defiance on August 9th virtually marked the start of the Quit India Movement. She now became a full time activist in the Movement, eventually going underground, to avoid being arrested. She became the editor of “Inquilaab”, the monthly magazine for the Congress, along with Ram Manohar Lohia.

In the 1944 issue of the magazine, she advised freedom fighters not to allow any academic arguments on questions like violence and non-violence to divert attention from the stern realities of the day........... “I want every student and youth to think, and feel as soldiers of the nation that is to come”.

In the meantime, the Government announced a reward of Rs. 5000 for her capture. She became ill and on hearing this, Gandhiji advised her to surrender. “I have sent you a message that you must not die underground. You are reduced to a skeleton. Do come out and surrender yourself and take the price offered for your arrest. Reserve the prize money for the great Indian cause”.

However, Aruna surrendered only when the warrants for her arrest were cancelled on 26 January, 1946.

After India attained independence, Aruna Asaf Ali turned to social work and helped to establish the National Federation of Indian Women in 1954. In 1992, she was awarded the Nehru Award for International Understanding. She breathed her last


in July 1996. The country honoured her with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously.

Glossary :fiery : having a great deal of energy.raging : filled with anger.convention : doing things the way most people

consider to be right.prosecuted : officially charged with a crime in

court.callous : very cruel, incapable of tender

emotions.concede : to give in, yield.solitaryconfinement : a punishment in which a prisoner is

kept alone in a separate cell.

got wind of : got the clue of an idea.

warrant : an official order signed by a magistrate which empowers the police official to arrest a person or search his house.

cordon : a protective barricade created by police personnel or vehicles to prevent people from entering the area.

stand in for : to act on behalf of someone.

impulse : a sudden inexplicable urge to do something.

helter - skelter : in disorderly haste or confusion.

defy : openly resist or refuse to obey.

going underground : hiding from the law to avoid detection of one’s illegal activities .

posthumous : an award / honour/ citation given to a person after his/her death.


I. Answer the following in two or three sentences each :-

1. What kind of atmosphere existed in the country when Aruna entered politics?

2. Why was she termed a non-conformist?

3. What was the impact of Aruna’s public address during the Salt Satyagraha?

4. Why had the Committee planned to hoist the tricolour? What had led to Gandhi’s arrest before the hoisting of the flag?

5. “There’s no arrest warrant for you, Madam.” Whom else was the warrant given to? What did Aruna persuade the British sergeant to do?

II. Answerthefollowingquestionsinfour-fivesentenceseach :

1. Describe the scene at Victoria Terminus in the early hours of August 9, 1942, as witnessed by Aruna Asaf Ali.

2. Narrate an instance from the biography to justify the fact that the British were extemely autocratic and ruthless?

3. Why was Aruna Asaf Ali considered the Grand Old Lady of the freedom struggle?

4. What was Aruna’s advice to the freedom fighters?

5. What was Gandhiji’s advice to Aruna? Why could she not abide by it?

6. What were the awards given to Aruna? Why were they given?

` ` `

The only way to escape the personal corruption of praise is to go on working. One is tempted to stop and listen to it. Turn away to work. There is nothing else.

- Albert Einstein


The Happy Cure

- Retold by : Rose Dobbs

A foolish king lay dying. At least, that’s what he said. Yes, he said he was at death’s door. But the truth of the matter was this: the king was suffering from having nothing to do. He was being bored to death.

Of course, the king would not admit this. He groaned and moaned and complained of sharp stabs in every muscle and sticking pains in every bone in his body. Physicians and surgeons came from far and wide. They looked down the king’s throat, they tapped his chest, and they felt his pulse. They hemmed, hawed and stroke their beards. But they could find nothing wrong.

“Physicians and surgeons are dolts,” cried the king. “Aren’t there any plain, ordinary doctors in the kingdom?”

The plain ordinary doctors came from hither and yon. They felt the king’s pulse, tapped his chest, and looked down his throat. They hawed and hemmed, took off their spectacles, put them on again. But even they could find nothing wrong. “Plain ordinary doctors are idiots,” cried the king in a rage. “The next one who examines me and finds nothing wrong will have his ears cut off and his nose shortened.”

This did not stop the coming of the doctors and the surgeons and the physicians. The king kept sending messengers and courtiers to bring them in. The people were in despair. Such an epidemic of heads without ears and faces with shortened noses was never seen!

Finally a simple old woman came to see the king. The exhausted prime minister brought her into the royal bed chamber.

The simple old woman peered into the king’s face for a long time. Then she said, “Your majesty, you are suffering from a strange and rare disease. So rare and strange, that no name exists for it.”

“There, I knew it,” cried the king in glee. “I kept telling all of them, the fools, that I’m a sick man.”


“A very sick man,” said the old woman. The king leaned back among his silken pillows and closed his eyes and wrinkled his brow as if he were in pain.

“And is there no cure for me?” he asked.“Oh, yes, your Majesty. You need sleep but one night in the

shirt of a happy man and you will be cured instantly,” said the simple old woman.

The king summoned the captain of his guard and his bravest soldiers; the best courtiers in the land; and the swiftest messengers and heralds.

“Start off at once,” he commanded them, “and bring me back the shirt of a happy man. And mind you, don’t return without it.” He added darkly.

The soldiers and courtiers, messengers and heralds travelled far and wide from east to west, from north to south, across seas and deserts, through cities and over mountains, from one end of the kingdom to the other. But nowhere could they find a happy man. They sent long reports to the king. And this is what they said:

The people in the east might be happy if your Majesty didn’t tax them so heavily.

And, the people in the west might be happy if they didn’t have to work so long and so hard, so they might have a little time to enjoy singing and dancing.

And, the people in the north might be happy if sometimes they could see you and felt you were interested in them.

And, the people in the south might be happy if your Majesty would notice their industry and faithfulness and would reward them.

The king read the reports hastily and flung them away. But as time went by and none of the messengers returned, and more and more reports came to him of a people that might be happy if their king so chose, he began to read more carefully.

One day a little stable boy approached a stranger who was happily singing.


“Good afternoon,” he said politely. “What makes you sing so merrily?”

“I sing from joy,” said the stranger. “I love my fellow men, I own but little and want less. I am a happy man and I sing.”

“A happy man,” cried the little stable boy. “Oh, do you want to know then that the whole kingdom is looking for you? Do you not know that the king is very ill and only if he can sleep one night in the shirt of a happy man he can be cured? Quick, quick, take off your shirt! Quick, quick, give it to me.”

The man burst into laughter. “My shirt,” he gasped, “Why, you little fellow, I don’t possess a shirt.” And jumping to his feet, he gathered his tattered coat about him and walked off. The little stable boy flew to the palace, past the guards and the prime minister and sped right into the royal bed chamber.

“What have we here?” cried the king.

The little stable boy had to wait to recover his breath before he could talk. “Oh, your Majesty,” he cried, “the cure was right here all the time – right at hand – right on the palace grounds. I found him – he said he loved his fellow men, owned but little and wanted less. “But,” and the little boy’s lips trembled, “but he didn’t possess a shirt.”

Then the king hung his head, ashamed. “Yes, the cure has been here all the time,” he murmured. “Only I can cure my own folly.” And he resolved then and there to be a good king, to help his people, to rule wisely and well. He never fancied himself ill again for he became too busy for such folly, and so he lived to a ripe old age.

Glossary :

groan (v) : make sad sound when in painmoan (n) : painful soundsharp tabs : prickingphysician : doctor


surgeons : doctors who perform surgeries (operations)dolts : stupid personscourtiers : a person who is part of the court of a kingpeer : look closelyinstantly : immediatelysummon : call for a meetingpolitely : in a gentle mannertrembled : shook slightlyresolve : decidefancied : imagined

I. Answer the following questions in about two or three sentences each.1. “The king was foolish.” Do you agree with this

statement? Justify your answer quoting one incident from the text.

2. ‘Physicians and surgeons are dolts’. Why did the king call them dolts?

3. What did the simple woman say to the king after she peered into his face?

4. ‘You will be cured instantly,’ said the simple old woman. What was the cure suggested?

5. Why did the soldiers and courtiers, messengers and heralds have to travel far and wide?

6. ‘I sing from joy,’ said the stranger. Why do you think the stranger sang from joy?

7. Why did the king hang his head in shame? What did he resolve afterwards?

8. Do you think the title of the story is appropriate? Give reasons.

9. “People who have nothing to do are bored to death.” Explain this statement.

10. Suggest another title to the story.

` ` `


Ranji’s Wonderful Bat- Ruskin Bond

“How’s that!” shouted the wicket-keeper, holding the ball up in his gloves.

“How’s that!” echoed the fielders.

“How?” growled the fast bowler, glaring at the umpire.

“Out!” said the umpire. And Suraj, the captain of the school team, was walking slowly back to the tool-shed at the far end of the field.

The score stood at fifty-three for four wickets. Another sixty runs had to be made for victory, and only one good batsman remained. All the rest were bowlers who could not make many runs.

It was Ranji’s turn to bat. He was the youngest member of the team, only eleven but strong and bold. Ranji prepared to face the bowler. The hard, shiny, red ball came speeding towards him.

Ranji was going to leap forward and play the ball back to the bowler, but at the last moment he changed his mind and stepped back, planning to push the ball through the ring of fielders on his right, or off side. The ball awning the air, shot off the grass, and came through sharply to strike Ranji on his pads.

The umpire raised a finger. ‘Out’ he said. And it was Ranji’s turn to walk back to the tool-shed.

The match was won by the visiting team.

“Never mind,” said Suraj, patting Ranji on the back.

“You’ll do better next time,” he told Ranji, “or you’ll lose your place in the side!”

Avoiding the other players, Ranji walked slowly homewards. He was very upset. He had been trying so hard and practising so regularly. But when an important game came along, he failed to make a big score.


On his way home, he had to pass Mr. Kumar’s Sports Shop. He liked to chat with the owner or look at all the things on the shelves_footballs, cricket balls, badminton rackets, hockey sticks and balls of various shapes and sizes.

Mr. Kumar had been a state player once, and had scored a century in a match against Tanzania.

But this was one day when he did not feel like stopping. He looked the other way and was about to cross the road when Mr.Kumar’s voice stopped him. “Hello, Ranji! Why are you looking so sad? Lost the game today?”

Ranji felt better as soon as he was inside the shop. “Yes, we lost the match.”

“Never mind,” said Mr. Kumar. “What would we do without losers? Anyway, how many runs did you make?”

“None. A big round egg. I haven’t made a good score in my last three matches,” said Ranji. “I’II be dropped from the team if I don’t do something in the next game”.

“Well, we can’t have that happening,” said Mr.Kumar. “Something will have to be done about it”.

“I’m just unlucky,” said Ranji.

“Maybe,but in that case, it’s time your luck changed’’.

Mr.Kumar began looking closely at a number of old cricket bats, and after a few minutes he said, “Ah!”. And he picked up one of the bats and held it out to Ranji. “This is it!” he said.

“This is the luckiest of all my old bats. This is the bat I made a century with!”

He held it out to Ranji. “Here, take it! I’II lend it to you for the rest of the cricket season. You won’t fail with it”.

Ranji took the bat and gazed at it with awe and delight. “Is it really the bat you made a century with?” he asked.

“It is,” said Mr. Kumar. “It may get you a hundred runs too!”


Ranji spent a nervous week waiting for Saturday’s match. He asked Koki, the girl next door, to bowl to him in the garden. Koki bowled quite well.

At last Saturday arrived, bright and sunny_just right for cricket. Suraj won the toss for the school and decided to bat first.

The opening batsmen put on thirty runs without being separated. The visiting fast bowlers couldn’t do much. Then the spin bowlers came on, and immediately there was a change in the game. Two wickets fell in one over, and the score was thirty-three for two. Suraj made a few quick runs, then he too was out to one of the spinners, caught behind the wicket. And it was Ranji’s turn.

He walked slowly to the wicket. The bowler took a short run and then the ball was twirling towards Ranji.

And then a thrill ran through Ranji’s arm as he felt the ball meet the bat.

CRACK! The ball, hit firmly with the middle of Ranji’s bat, streaked past the helpless bowler and sped towards the boundary. Four runs!

And that was only the beginning. Now Ranji began to play all the strokes he knew. He sent the fielders scampering to all corners of the field.

Twenty minutes after lunch, when Suraj closed the innings, Ranji was not out with fifty eight and Ranji’s school won the match.

On his way home, Ranji stopped at Mr. Kumar’s shop.

“We won!” he said. “And I made fifty-eight_my highest score so far. It really is a lucky bat!”

“I told you so,” said Mr.Kumar, giving Ranji a warm handshake. “There’ll be bigger scores.”

Ranji went home in high spirits. He was so pleased that he stopped at the Jamna Sweet Shop and bought two laddoos for Koki. She didn’t care much for cricket, but she was crazy about laddoos.


Mr. Kumar was right. It was only the beginning of Ranji’s success with the bat. In the next game, he scored forty. Ranji could have certainly scored more but he grew careless and allowed himself to be stumped by the wicket-keeper. The game that followed was a two-day match, and Ranji, who was now batting at number three, made forty-five runs.

Everyone was pleased with him. His coach, his captain Suraj, and Mr. Kumar. But no one knew about the lucky bat.

That was a secret between Ranji and Mr. Kumar.

One evening, after a game on the maidan, Ranji decided to catch a bus home.

He was in the living room, just beginning to sip a cup of tea when Koki walked in, and the first thing she said was, “Ranji, where’s your bat?”

“Oh no! I must have left it in the bus!” cried Ranji. “I’ll never get it back!”

The bat was lost forever. And Ranji’s team was playing their last and most important match of the cricket season on Saturday, against a public school team from Delhi.

Next day, he was at Mr. Kumar’s shop looking very sad. “What’s the matter?” asked Mr. Kumar. “ I’ve lost the bat,” said Ranji.

Mr. Kumar looked a little worried at first, then he smiled and said, “You can still make all the runs you want.”

“But I don’t have the bat any more,” said Ranji.“Any bat will do,” said Mr. Kumar. “A bat has magic only

when the batsman has magic! What you needed was confidence, not a bat. And by believing the bat was lucky, you got your confidence back!”

“What’s confidence?” asked Ranji. It was a new word for him. “Confidence is knowing you are good,” said Mr. Kumar. “And can I be good without the bat?”

“Of course. You have always been good. If you remember that, you’ll make the runs.”


On Saturday, Ranji walked to the wicket with a bat borrowed from Suraj.

The school team had lost its first wicket with only two runs on the board. Ranji went in at this stage. The Delhi School’s opening bowler was sending down some fast ones. Ranji faced up to him.

The first ball was very fast. Quickly, Ranji stepped back and pulled it hard on to the boundary.

A SIX! Everyone stood up and cheered. And it was only the beginning of Ranji’s wonderful innings. The match was a draw, but Ranji’s seventy-five was the talk of the school.

On his way home, he bought a dozen laddoos. Six for Koki and six for Mr. Kumar.

Glossary :gloves : a piece of leather/cloth keepers wear in cricket.growl : to make a low rough sound, usually in anger.glare : a long angry look.century : a score of hundred runs by one player in cricket.lend : to give something to someone for a short period

of time.delight : happiness.twist : to give a sudden quick turn.streak : to move somewhere extremely quickly.stumps : the three vertical wooden poles at which the

ball is bowled in cricket.confidence : the quality of being certain of your abilities.innings : the period in a game of cricket in which a team

or a player bats.awning : a sheet of canvas on a frame, used for shelter.

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each :1. Who was the youngest member of the team?2. What did Mr. Kumar give Ranji?


3. How many runs did Ranji score in the first match?4. Who was the captain of Ranji’s team?5. Why did Ranji buy two laddoos?6. Why was everyone pleased with Ranji after the second

match?7. How did Ranji lose the bat?8. What did Ranji do after the last match of the season?

II. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each:1. Why was Ranji upset after the game?2. How did Mr. Kumar help Ranji?3. Ranji scored many runs with the new bat given by

Kumar. What may be the reason?4. How did Mr. Kumar console Ranji when he lost the

bat?5. What is the good quality you appreciate in Mr. Kumar?6. If you were Mr. Kumar, how would you help the boy?7. What do we learn from the story?


Collect the pictures of cricket players and make a scrap book. And write captions under each of the pictures.

Learn the actions which an umpire shows in a cricket match and make a list of them after consulting your teacher of physical education.

` ` `

I, for one, thoroughly believe that no power in the universe can withhold from anyone anything they really deserve.

- Swami Vivekananda


Monday Morning- Mark Twain

It was Monday morning. Tom Sawyer was feeling miserable. Monday morning always found him so, because it started another week’s slow “suffering” in school. He generally began that day with wishing he had no holiday on Sunday. It made the going to school again so much more painful.

Tom lay thinking. Presently he found himself pretending that he was sick; then he could stay home from school. There was just a chance that something was wrong with him. He mentally examined every part of his body. He found no ailment. He investigated again. Just then he thought he could detect some slight pain in the stomach.

Tom began to encourage it with considerable hope. But he had little success. The pain soon grew feeble, and presently died wholly away. He investigated further. Suddenly he discovered something. One of his upper front teeth was loose. This was lucky, he was about to begin to groan, as a “starter”, as he called it. But almost all at once it occurred to him that if he told his aunt about it, she would pull it out, and that would hurt. So he thought he would hold the tooth in reserve for the present, and investigate further.

Nothing seemed to come to his help for some time. Then Tom remembered the doctor telling about a certain thing that laid up a patient for two or three weeks and threatened to make him lose a finger. So the boy eagerly drew his sore toe from under the sheet and held it up for inspection. Now that he had found a promising ailment, he had only to produce the symptoms. But he did not know what these were. However, it seemed worthwhile taking a chance. So he fell to groaning with considerable spirit. He should first of all get Sid, his younger half brother, to tell his aunt about his ailment. But Sid slept on very soundly.

Tom groaned louder and imagined that he began to feel pain in the toe. But there was little response from Sid. Tom was


gasping by this time. He took a rest and then began to groan even louder. But Sid snored on. Tom was furious. He called out, “Sid! Sid!” and shook him. This plan worked well, and Tom began to groan again. Sid yawned, stretched, then brought himself up on his elbow and began to stare at Tom. Tom kept on groaning.

“Tom! Say, Tom”, said Sid. There was no response from Tom.

“Here, Tom! Tom! What’s the matter, Tom?” Sid asked and he shook him and looked in his face anxiously. Tom moaned out, “Oh, don’t, Sid. Don’t shake me like that.”

“Why, what’s the matter, Tom? I must call Auntie”.

“No-never mind. It may be all over by and by. Don’t call anybody.”

“But I must! Don’t groan so, Tom. It’s awful. How long have you been like this?”

“Hours! Ouch! Oh, don’t stir so, Sid, you’ll kill me”.

“Tom, why didn’t you wake me sooner? Oh, Tom, don’t! I am scared Tom, what is the matter?”

“I forgive you for everything, Sid. (groan) Everything you’ve done to me. When I’m gone ......

“Oh, Tom, you aren’t dying, are you? Don’t Tom-oh, don’t. May be .......

“I forgive everybody, Sid. (groan) Tell them so, Sid”.

But Sid had got out of bed, snatched his clothes and was on his feet. Tom was suffering in reality now, so handsomely was his imagination working, that his groans had become quite genuine.

Sid flew downstairs and said, “Oh, Aunt Polly, come! Tom’s dying!”


“Yes. Don’t wait. Come quick!”

“Rubbish! I don’t believe it!”


But she fled upstairs, nevertheless, with Sid and Mary on her heels. And her face grew white, and her lips trembled. When she reached the bedside, she gasped out, “You, Tom! Tom, what’s the matter with you?”

“Oh auntie, I’m......”

“What’s the matter with you? What’s the matter with you, child?”

“Oh, auntie, my sore toe is mortified!”

The old lady sank down into a chair and laughed a little, then cried a little, then did both together. This restored her and she said:

“Tom, what a fright you gave me! Now I must get you to stop this nonsense!”

The groans stopped and the pain disappeared from the toe. The boy felt a little foolish, and he said, “Aunt Polly, it seemed mortified, and it hurt so much, I don’t mind my tooth aching at all.”

“Your tooth, indeed! What’s the matter with your tooth?”

“One of them is loose, and it aches terribly.”

“There, now. Don’t begin that groaning again. Open your mouth. Well, your tooth is loose, but you’re not going to die of that. I must now get Mary to bring me a few things.

“Mary, run along quickly and bring me a piece of silk thread and some burning coals from the kitchen.”

“Oh, please auntie, don’t pull it out. It doesn’t hurt any more. Please don’t auntie. I don’t want to stay home from school,” Tom said.

“Oh, you don’t, do you? So all this row was because you thought you’d stay home from school and go fishing. Tom, Tom, I love you so, and you seem to try every way you can to break my old heart.”


By this time the dental instruments were ready. The old lady tied one end of the silk thread fast to Tom’s tooth with a loop and tied the other to the bedpost. Then she seized the pan of burning coals and suddenly thrust it almost into the boy’s face. The tooth hung dangling by the bedpost now.

“Now that your tooth is out, Tom, you should go to school. You should not have frightened me like this.”

Glossary :

miserable : very unhappypresently : very soonailment : illnessinvestigate : examine thoroughlydetect : discoverslight : very littlefeeble : weakgroan/moan : give out a low cry of painoccur : happenin reserve : for future usesore : painfulpromising : bright, likely to succeedsymptom : signworthwhile : profitablespirit : strengthstare : look with concentrationanxiously : worriedly, with concernmortify : (here) dierestore : to become strong againfright : great fearache : painrow : noisy argument


C1. Read the story and answer the following in a sentence each:1. How did Tom feel on Monday morning?2. Why did he want to be sick?3. What made Tom think of his toe?4. Why did he start groaning?5. What did he want Sid to do?6. Was there anything really wrong with his toe?7. Did Aunt Polly believe that Tom was really dying?8. What did Aunt Polly do when Tom said his toe was

mortified?9. What did he complain of next?10. Did Tom’s plans finally succeed?

C2. Answer the following in two or three sentences each. Work in pairs.1. What did Tom begin to investigate? Why?2. Why did Tom try not to complain about his loose tooth?3. What happened when Tom thought that he had a

stomach pain?4. How did Aunt Polly pull out Tom’s tooth?

` ` `


The Karnataka Text Book Society has sought permission to use copyrighted materials from different sources. Anticipating permission it wishes to thank with gratitude the publishers private as well as Government and authors of the materials used in this Textbook.

Karnataka Textbook Society (Regd).Bengaluru.

Government of Karnataka English - Karnataka … textbooks/class9/9th standard/9th...Government of Karnataka English Second Language Textbook (Revised) ... - [PDF Document] (2024)


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